Table of Content
Table of Content
|No.||Title / Writer|
|1||ERROR ANALYSIS ON ENGLISH WRITING SKILL FOR THE FIRST SEMESTER STUDENTS
|2||BIMODAL INPUT IN TEACHING LISTENING COMPREHENSION EXERCISES
(A Study of Beginner Level Students in TOEIC Preparation Classes)
|3||THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING TYPE TGT AND LEARNING MOTIVATION ON READING COMPREHENSION OF PRIVATE VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS (SMK) IN BEKASI.
|4||DONALD TRUMP AND HILLARY CLINTON’S DISTINCTIVE LANGUAGE STYLE DURING THEIR SPEECH ACCEPTANCE
|5||THE EFFECTS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILL AND VOCABULARY MASTERY TOWARDS STUDENT’S SPEAKING SKILL
|6||AN ANALYSIS OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE IN THE NOVEL THERE YOU’LL FIND BY JENNY B. JONES
Saum Maria Magdalena
THE STRUGGLE OF THE MAIN CHARACTER IN THE MOVIE DJANGO UNCHAINED BY QUENTIN TARANTINO
The purpose of this research is to find out how struggle of the main character against injustice from the white people around them. The research is conducted by using qualitative method; the writer uses two data sources, namely primary and secondary data source. The primary data is movie Django Unchained directed by Quentin Tarantino. The secondary data sources are the other sources related to this thesis like books about the movie. There are three objectives of this study. First, the kind of struggle of the main character as a slave that shows in movie. Second, factors that influenced black people become slave in movie. It makes black people get pressure from white people. Third the way slave can survive in pressure of white people. The results of the research are as follows; in the end, it can be concluded that the struggle for freedom can find happiness. Finally, Django as a main character and other slaves get their struggle for freedom after overcoming against their master.
Keywords: Character, struggle, racism, slave.
Everyone has human right from their born until died. The right is not only for living, but also for freedom. What is human right? According to Equality and Human Rights Commission human rights are the rights that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death. People cannot do discriminations, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national, ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, or any other status. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
Many cases of violation human rights that happen in this world, for example; slavery, human trafficking, prostitution, discrimination and torture: slavery is one of violations human right and still often occurs even in modern era. It is the situation that authorized by power. There is one of example of the slavery in modern era. According to news from Kompas.com, 01 August 2013 in Tangerang, Banten.There are 34 labours work compulsively to make 200 pans more than 12 hours in a day without eating, and resting. If they cannot reach the target, they will get punishment and torture.
From the case above can be concluded that there are slaves and master.According to Dorito slave is someone who is owned by another person, a slave does not have choice, freedom, and money.In other example slavery cases arefound in The United State, because there are many people come to there with a different purpose.They are blacks who caught from Africa to be sold as slave there was no choice for them.For more than three hundred years during African enslavement was practiced, African descendants became subjects to discrimination.
White American treated black people inhumanely, this circumstance forced Black people to fight against their condition of being discriminated of the equal rights in all aspects in their lives. In the racism’s case the writer sees struggle of slave who get violence and torture from their master. They have to survive in worst condition without any help. Struggle needed to defend in our live.
Based on the case above the writer tries to analyze struggle of the main character. In this movie describes how does the main character against injustice that he gets from White people around him, and wants to get right for livingand freedom as human not a slave.From this movie also shows The Black people do struggle hard to be able defend their live from the White people. It will discuss in next chapter.
The writer uses some objectives of study can be stated as follows : (1) to know the struggle through the main character reflected in the movie; (2) To find the factors that influence the white people to the black people; and (3) to know the black people survive in the movie.
- Theoretical Framework
- Definition of Character
The character is the part of intrinsic element in the movie that is firstly explored by the writer because it takes essential role to display any behaviour of each character in the movie. The moment a character is introduced carries the ability to show some of the most powerful emotions in the world.
David Rush (2005:46) said that characters in plays, like people in real life, are usually driven by one or more primary desires. They, like us, want to be happy, or safe, or successful, or loved. These, however, are inner goals. They are private, they live in the heart, mind, or soul of a character.
Meanwhile, according to Lukens (2007:76), the definition of character, as the term is generally used, means the aggregate of mental, emotional, and social qualities that distinguish a person. In literature however, the term character is used to mean a person, or in the case of children’s literature, sometimes a personified animal or object. Each of living beings in a story, play, or poem is a character.
According to Meyer (1990:61), character is important in fictional work because a character helps to develop the plot. Character in influenced by events just as events are shaped the plot by character.
Based on the three definitions of character which have been stated previously, it can be synthesized that character is like people in real life who have mental, emotional and social qualities, it is important in fictional work for developing the plot.
- Kinds of character
According to kirzner character divided into two parts, there are:
- Main character
The main character in a story is generally known as protagonist, the character who opposes him is the antagonist. Character is revealed by how a character responds to conflict. The main character who appears the most in the story and always has connection with other actors in generally there are main character which consist of protagonist and antagonist. The further ideas about protagonist and antagonist are presented as follows:
According to Blair (1990:10), she says that protagonist is a character that sometimes figure with positiveside but in case a villain can be also included protagonist.
Furthermore Akun (2000:30) also says that protagonist characters have a great part or role in a movie and also involve order characters to take part in a story. It means in society nature of fate as well as another person. The chief character in a play or story, who may also be opposed by antagonist originally.
Guerin (1986:76) says that antagonist is the character with who the protagonist is in conflict, generally not a sympathetic character.
The writer concludes from the statements above that the protagonist character is the opposite of the antagonist character and can make the story of movie become more interesting.
- Minor character
The minor character consists of stock and foil. Stock characters are minor characters in a work of fiction who do not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story. Also referred to as “two-dimensional characters” or flat characters.” They play a supporting role to the main character, who as a rule should be round, or complex.(Terry, 1988:20)
Foil character is any character who in some way compares and contrasts with another. Playwrights create foil characters to help illuminate the personality of other characters as well as to help dramatize the meaning of the play.
The writer assumes that character are different based on the necessary, even the character can support situation more attractive. Supporting character who plays good can make the movie more interesting for audience. It means the character specify based on their characteristic in the movie. Their characterization influenced the story.
- Definition of Racism
Racism is important to talk about nowadays not because is history but because racism is still alive today. Racism has existed throughout human history. Long time ago in America, the racism problem is very serious and worst. The black are deserve as slave for white. The white do not care about the feeling of the black and do not regard them as human being. The white can do what they like to the black such as beaten or insulted them.
Racism may be defined as the hatred of one person by another because of skin color, language, custom, or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person. Those have influenced slavery, wars, and the formation of nation. Racism is defined as predication of decision and policies on consideration of race for the purpose of subordinating a racial group and maintaining control over that group. Racism can more narrowly refer to a system of oppression, such as institutional racism, that is based on the idea of one race’s superiority over other races (Henry, 2002: 253-283).
Hannaford (1996:215) assist that racism is a general term used to describe: “a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one’s own race is superior and has the right to rule others.
Racism is not just word but action. Mostly, the conflict about racism such as discrimination.In addition, Jones (1997:117) defined racismbroadly as follows: “[Racism] result from the transformation of race prejudice and/or ethnocentrism through the exercise of power against a racial group defined as inferior, by individuals and institution with the intentional support of the entire culture.
Racism can be happened because some people do discrimination and prejudice.
The word discrimination derives from the Latin language “discriminare”, which means to distinguish between. Discrimination is an action that treats people unfairly because of their membership in a particular social group. Berger said that discrimination is a special act, a deliberate to exclude some individuals from something desirable because they are presumed (correctly or incorrectly) to belong in a certain group. The group that is the objects of discrimination are identified by means of religion, national origin, colour, language and social class.
In the practice of racism, there is always a racial prejudice practice involved. Prejudice is a pre-judgment in the sense that is judgement concerning objects and persons not based on knowledge or experience. According to Franklin in his book is a judgment or opinion formed before hand or without due the examination. The most elemental manifestation of prejudice in this board meaning of the word is to be found in the personal likes and dislikes, preference, and antipathies which everyone exhibit in regard to food, clothes, and the art as well as person. (Franklin, 1995).
Feldman (1985: 160) asserts that prejudice and discrimination are negative manifestation of integrative powers instead of bringing and holding people together, prejudice and discrimination push the apart. Ironically, prejudice and discrimination imply some sort of relation. If there is no relationship people would be completely unaware of another person’s or racial group’s existence.
- Definition of Slave
Persons defined as slaves were part of a distinct social group whose lives were routinely controlled by others. Such people in general performed arduous labour, particularly in agriculture, construction and mining, but also in households and the military, only a fortunate few working as managers, political administrators, or skilled artisans (McDonald, 2002:21).
Slavery was popular in America during 1660s to 1860s. Slaves being as property but they could not own property. The slave could have no honor because he had no power and no independent social existence, hence no public worth. He had no name of his own to defend. He could only defend his master’s worth and his master’s name (Orlando, 1982:14).
According to Henri Wallonin Patterson Orlando’s book slavery and social death, he states
“The slave was a dominated thing, an animated instrument, a body with natural movements, but without its own reason, an existence entirely absorbed in another. The proprietor of this thing, the mover of this instrument, the soul and the reason of this body, the source of this life, was the master. The master was everything for him: his father and his god, which is to say, his authority and his duty… thus, god, fatherland, family, existence, are all, for the slave, identified with the same being; there was nothing which made for the social person, nothing which made for the moral person, that was not the same as his personality and his individuality.” (Orlando, 1982:14).
Based on above elaboration about definition of slave, it can be inferred that slave is a person who lives controlled by others and being classed as property who is forced to work for nothing because he had no power and no independent social existence without his master.
- Definition of Slavery
Slavery was one form of exploitation. Its special characteristics include the idea that slaves are property; that they are outsiders who are alien by origin or who are denied their heritage through judicial or other sanctions; that coercion can be used at will; that their labour power is at the complete disposal of a master; that they do not have the right to their own sexuality and, by extension, to provision is made to ameliorate that status (Paul E, 2012:1).
Based on above elaboration about definition of slavery, it can be inferred that slavery refers to exploitation in which individuals are owned by others that they do not have the right to their own sexuality and their life.
- Definition of Struggle
In this life there are many obstacles. Struggle is one of way to against the obstacles. Without obstacles life is flat and there is no good story and people would be a weak person. Struggle also has many good benefits. Such as people have to fight the problem or obstacle and make it better for story in their live, it can make people strong as before and can avoid regret in their live. If you have struggleto do something, you tryhard to do it, even though other people or things may be making it difficult for you to succeed.
Meanwhile Jones (2007:xi) said struggle we all have them; personality quirks, natural tendencies, or the result of circumstances that have shaped us and caused difficulties in life.
While Kelly Bersch (2015) states struggle means pushing ahead no matter what. It means investing your hope and energy even in a cause that seems hopeless. Struggle is a mark of heroism, and the difference between winners and losers.Struggle does not tire: it uplifts and rejuvenate; it brings out the best in the human spirit. If you feel that life is hard, you have not faced your toughest adversity.
In line with David Kennedy (2016:9) states struggle whose outcome can be predicted need not be undertaken to be lose or won: some struggles need only be referenced to be won decisively. It takes courage, energy, and imagination to be open what has been settled for reconsideration.
From all statements above the writer can conclude that struggle means it has quirks, natural tendencies, or the result of circumstances that emphasize the gravity of investing your hope and energy even in a cause that seems hopeless, out the best in the human spirit. If you feel that life is hard, you have not faced your toughest adversity.
Based on the above theories, the movie which is going to be analyzed is “Django Unchained” by Quentin Tarantino. The reason why the writer chooses this movie is because the movie tells about the struggle of a man slave. He fights the problem with struggle.The story really describes the struggle through the main character Django in this movie like what is told and written in David Kennedy’s concept, so that is why the writer chooses the struggle’s theory because it is related to the main character who live as slave and do hard struggle to against injustice from whites around him.
In writing this research the writer uses qualitative approach to analyze the data. This chapter deals with the process of collecting information and the data. In the world of research, there are two data researches to gathering and reporting information, they are qualitative research and quantitative research. The quantitative research tends to approximate phenomena from a larger number of individuals using survey methods and the qualitative research is focused on understanding a phenomenon from a closer perspective (Cohen, 2007:461).
- FINDING AND DISCUSSION
- Kinds of struggle from the slaves through the main character reflected in the movie.
From this movie the writer sees kinds of struggle. The struggle will be dominant that appears in main character because he lives as slave. Most of player in this movie are slaves, so that freedom is important thing for them. All of slaves live in hard pressure even until die.
Django is main character and he belongs to protagonist character. He is dynamic character because from the start to finish in the movie he changes the character. The first he is good man but in the middle of story when he meets Calvin Candie he changes the character becomes rude man. The struggle shows in Django’s character when the movie starts until finish. He will do whatever the trouble as long as good for his life. The first struggle appears when he wants to find The Brittle Brother’s mission with Dr Schultz, he takes a big risk. He pretends to be a freeman in front of people who meets him. Another risk when he wants to save his wife from Calvin Candie. He is brave to meet cruel Candie even he shoots him with a gun.
Django is a blessed slave who meets Dr Schultz that wants to make him being freedom. The first time he has to find the family of brittle brother, someone asks him to kill them if they do that they will get much money. He meets Dr Schultz and he agrees to join in the mission whereas it is dangerous mission for slave. He follows the mission until finish but it is not over he has another mission that is findings his wife and wants to save her from Candie. He collects information about his wife and makes it success to save her.He really loves his wife, since they are separated by master he really miss his wife. Even though he does not know where she is, but he tries to find her. He never gives up to finding his love.
Every slave needs struggle to defend their life. Like Django, he never gives up to reach his obsession even though many troubles that has to face in his life. Freedom is one of his dreams as slave.Django really wants his freedom of his live as human not a slave, because become a slave it is really hurt. Being a slave is a worst thing, because he will get punishment, torture or violence from his master, the punishment is not only violence but also about physic like he sees his wife punch by her master in front of him, but he cannot do anything as his wife. It makes him guilty to his wife. In the part of Django will save his wife it becomes tense part, because Django has strong struggle to make save his wife. Many troubles that must be faced for him but it does not matter, Django will not stop to save his wife.
- Factor that influenced the black people become slaves in the movie
The factor that makes black people being a slave is because of history. Slavery in America began when the first African slaves were brought to the North American colony of Jamestown. Virginia. Slavery was practiced throughout the American colonies in the 17th and 18th and African-American slaves helped out build the economic foundations of the new nation (A&E Television Network, LLC).
Another statement from Norman Coombs (1972:13), he says that neither slavery nor the slave trade came to West Africa with the arrival of Portuguese in the middle of the fifteenth century. Some slaves were taken by force.
It is related to this movie. Quentin Tarantino wants to tell to the audience about story of America people were treated inhumanely by White American. He makes this story similar to the fact at that time, from the setting and the background.
The Black People in the United State is considered as a low class citizen. It is proven by the history that Black People were always segregated and discriminated in dominant white society. However, Black People had been struggling for their prestige to place themselves equal to White People. They attempt to get higher level in all aspects of live.
- The way slaves survive in this movie
In this case the writer tries to analyze by watching movie in many times to make understand well. It is not easy for the writer to find out the answer. One of the way slaves can survive from this movie by following their master’s command, rules whatever it is. They surrender to their master even make themselves are sacrifice. If they do one mistake even little mistake their master will gives punishment without compassion. Being a slave just follows what their master’s command. There is no choice for them to do objection for their master’s rule.
After analyzing the struggle through the main character in movie Django Unchained, now the writer comes to the conclusion. Through this research, there are three conclusions that found from this movie. First, the writer sees the kinds of struggle from this movie, those are struggle for freedom for Django and his wife, and to get rights. All of slaves live in hard pressure even until die. It tells about how difficult to get freedom for black people as slave in that era. How hard to make same status with white people because from facilities and clothes are limited by white people.
Second, the writer finds factors that influences Black become slaves The reason it is because of history. Black Americans or before 1970 African American are descendants of enslaved Africans brought to America from 1565 through 1807 during the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
Third, the writer finds the way slaves survive from white in movie All of slaves try to defend in their live. They obey what their master’s command although they will die Django can make this story happy endingwith his struggle and passion never useless for his life because finally he is together with his wife in the end of story.
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APPLYING SCANNING AND SKIMMING SKILLS TO UNDERSTAND LIFE SKILLS READING
The purpose of life skills reading is to extract information that will assist the reader in performing some task of work or for daily life. Most formal school students who are given training on the life skills reading, they can comprehend the meaning of the text. Since the purpose of life of reading skills is to derive meaning from it, the readers should not translate word by word what they have read. Therefore skimming and scanning skills are important to be trained to senior school students as well as college students. This research is given to the senior school students. The findings show that students who have skimming and scanning skills are able to comprehend the meaning of the texts. By obtaining skills on reading such those kinds of text, students are expected to be able to comprehend what they have read and assist people who need help in understanding the life skills reading. This research suggests the teachers to encourage students to be able to know the meaning of the life skills reading so that the people around them can take the benefit of him/her. It also has the implication that teachers can give their students skimming and scanning skills in the reading activities.
Key Words: Skimming, Scanning and Life skills reading
To obtain communicative competence students should learn the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. In actual practice many students neglect the reading skill. This is due to the students’ laziness and lack of the reading strategy. It might also be affected by teachers who do not have insufficient knowledge of teaching reading. As a result, many students are lack of reading skills.
Basically, reading is an activity in which the reader derives meaning from print. There are two main reasons for reading I for pleasure and 2 for information. Reading for pleasure is commonly fulfilled by the students because they want to not because they have to. While the second category that that is reading for information students read because they are asked by the teacher.
Competent readers use a variety of skills and strategies to extract information as efficiently as possible, they also know how to apply those skills when dealing with different types of reading. Unfortunately not many senior high school students are competent. To provide students reading competency, a special treatment however should be made by the teacher. To encourage students to read, teacher should provide authentic reading materials such as forms, applications, advertisements, etc. In fact, many reading activities conducted in the classroom apply reading materials which are superficial. Students are given material that is difficult to understand. This learning process does not meet the students need.
To make the reading activities beneficial to students however, the materials should be useful for them such as life skill reading materials. In life skill reading it is important for students to recognize that they do not need to read every word to understand what they have read. Skimming skills (looking through reading material quickly to get the gist of it and see how it is organized) and scanning skills (locating specific information relevant to the purpose of the reading, such as key words or key ideas) are often used to eliminate irrelevant details and pick up main points.
Founded on the fact that students do not get reading materials which meet their need, this research propose to English teacher to present authentic materials such as the life skill reading in the classroom. By presenting the authentic material in the classroom, it is expected that students are encourage to read the other reading text which is more academic. This research also concern on app0lying skimming and scanning technique in presenting the authentic materials. By applying these techniques students can extract meaning from text easily.
Based on the problem above, the objective of this study is to know the outcome of presenting authentic materials using skimming and scanning techniques.
- Theoretical Framework.
- The definition of Scanning.
Like the rest of us, students need skills with a reading text. They need to be able to do a number of things with a reading text. According to Jeremy Harmer (2007:100) they need to be able to scan the text for particular bits of information they are searching for (as, for example, when we look for a telephone number, what’s on television at certain time or search quickly through an article looking for a name or other detail). This skill means that they do not have to read every word and line, on the contrary, such an approach would stop them scanning successfully.
Scanning is quickly searching for some particular piece of information. An example of this activity is when students to look for names or dates, to find definition of a key concept, or to list a certain number of supporting details. The purpose of scanning is to extract information without reading through the whole text.
According to Jack, C Richards (2010:508) scanning is a type of reading strategy which is used when the reader wants to locate a particular piece of information without necessarily understanding the rest of a text or passage. For example, the reader may read through a chapter of a book as rapidly as possible in order to find out information about a particular date, such as when someone was born. Scanning may be contrasted with skimming or skim-reading, which is a type of rapid reading which is used when the reader wants to get the main idea or ideas from a passage. For example a reader may skim-read may skim-read a chapter to find out if the writer approves or disapproves of something.
Based on some the definitions, it is concluded that scanning is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly locate a specific piece of information within reading material. The piece of information to be located may be contained in a list of names, words, numbers, short statements, and sometimes even in a paragraph. Since students know exactly what they are looking for, move their eyes quickly over the reading material until they locate the specific piece of information the need to find.
- The definition of Skimming.
Before reading a certain text, as described by Harmer J (2007:100) students need to be able to skim-as if they were casting their eyes over its surface – to get a general idea of what it is about (as, for example, when we run our eyes over a film review to see what the film is about and that the reviewer though about it, or when we look quickly at a report to get a feel for the topic and what its conclusion are). Just as with scanning, if students try to gather all the details at this stage, they will get bogged down and may not be able to identify the general idea because they are concentrating too hard on specifics.
One of the valuable reading strategies for students is skimming. Skimming give readers a chance to predict the purpose of reading, the main topic, or massage. Other definition of skimming given by Jack C Richard (2010:532) a type of reading strategy in which the reader sample segments of a text in order to achieve a general understanding of its meaning. Skimming involves the use of strategies for guessing where important information might be in a text and then using basic reading comprehension skills on those parts of the text until a general idea of its meaning is reached.
From the definition above, it is concluded that skimming is the reading style used by flexible readers when their purpose is to quickly obtain a general idea about the reading material. The skimming style is most useful when students have to read a large amount of material in a short amount of time. When using the skimming style, students should identify the main ideas in each paragraph and ignore the details in supportive sentences.
- Life Skills Reading
- The definition of reading.
Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics by Jack C Richard and Richard Schmidt defines that reading is the process by the meaning of written text is understood. There are various kinds of reading. They are among others silent reading (this is done when silently), reading aloud (saying the a written text aloud), reading speed ( the speed which a person reads), and reading strategies (ways of accessing the meanings of texts, which are employed flexibly and selectively in the course of reading and which are often under the conscious control of the reader. Strategies serve to make the reading process more effective. Such strategies include, (1) identifying a purpose for reading, (2) planning what steps to take, (3) previewing the text, and (4) predicting the contents of the text or text section.
- Types of written text.
In a literate society, there are many different types of written text people need to read. The following are the types of written text that students may encounter in real-life situation.
- Non-fiction : report, editorials, essays and articles, references (dictionaries, encyclopedias)
- Fiction : novels, short stories, jokes, drama, poetry, comic, strips, cartoons.
- Letters : personal, business, greeting cards, invitations
- Diaries, journal.
- Memos (e.g. interoffice memos), messages (e.g., phone massages), announcements, forms, applications, questionnaires, instructions, labels, signs, recipes, maps, manuals, menus, schedules (e.g. transportation information) advertisements, and directions.
The last types of written text listed in point (5) are commonly called Life Skills Reading. In classroom activities these kinds of material are also known as authentic reading materials.
The definition of Life Skills Reading
The term skills according to Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics by Jack C Richard and Richard Schmidt (in language teaching) is another term for Language Skills, Acoording to Marry McMullin (1992:3). Life Skills Reading is the ability to extract information from print which people encounter in their day to day life situations.
- The life skills Reading sequences.
To give an illustration the following example describes how the life skills reading activities presented in the classroom. As with all other skills work, it will be seen that reading often follow on from – or is followed by – work on other skills, such as retelling and reporting. Following the reading principles offered by Jeremy Harmer as described previously, the sequences of presenting the life skills reading include pre-reading activities, skimming & scanning, comprehension exercises, and extension activities.
Pre-reading activities utilize the students’ prior knowledge and experience in order to help them decide what to expect in the reading. Print makes sense when it relates to something the reader already knows. Incorporating pictures, illustration, charts, real-life experiences, discussion about key concepts and key words into the lesson builds the students’ background knowledge and helps them bring their existing knowledge to the reading. An example to this stage is that the teacher shows a picture of A washing machine instruction to the students. Then the teacher has questions and answers. Another example is that the teacher asks students whether they can tell how to operate a washing machine.
In this pre-reading stage teacher can present some vocabularies that might appear in the text. By doing so, the teacher already inform some important words that the students should recognize and understand the meaning.
The next step is the students read the instruction. This time teacher should encourage students to do skimming and scanning technique. It is important for the teacher to tell the students what skimming and scanning are. Students also need to know when they have to do skimming or scanning. Remind students to focus their comprehension on the main point of the text. When students do not know the meaning of certain words, encourage them to guess. In this case teacher should give a way to guess meaning. For example ask students to relate the words to the preceding sentence, or relate to the picture if any.
The next activity is comprehension exercises. This activity helps students understand the meaning of the text. To help students move from a general understanding to a more detailed understanding of what was read, exercises should:
- Utilize the organization of the text (e.g. chronological, alphabetical, spatial).
- Focus on specific reading skills (e.g. inferring the meaning of unfamiliar words, recognizing word formation and derivation, scanning texts for specific information, extracting relevant points from the text).
- Be suited to the text (e.g. skimming and scanning exercises would be suitable for classified ads and labels).
The next activity is called extension activities. This step requires students to go beyond comprehension and use the information in the text to make inferences, to evaluate, to apply information to a new situation, etc. Retelling and describing are activities that require students to interact with one another and utilize what they have just read in a meaningful practical way. Another extension activity also can be carried out by asking students to bring other instruction for example the instruction of a building up a robot, an instruction of printed machine, etc. The students read the instruction remind them to guess the meaning and do skimming and scanning techniques.
In designing the effective life skills reading, the teacher also needs to consider the following.
- Reading is primary a silent activity. Students need to process the reading independently of others. Reading is not pronunciation exercise. Students should not be asked to read aloud. When students are asked to read aloud, it forces them to read word by word, which is not the way efficient readers read.
- Reading should be relevant and interesting. Only when the reading is meaningful and relates to what the reader wants to know will there be sufficient motivation to understand the written text. Following the sequences of life skills reading, here is an example of reading lesson.
- Assessing life skills reading.
In general to assess reading skills is by way of informal assessments such as observation and monitoring to students performance, and formal assessment such as giving comprehensions test to the students, reinterpret the information, retelling the text, and constructing meaning with the text. Since the reading materials consist of life skills reading, the way to assess students is using the formal assessment. One way to assess the reader’s achievement is to evaluate the shift between prior knowledge and the text. To do this, the teacher can have students think aloud as they read. In this procedure, the teacher can use other life skills reading materials. After students read the text silently, the teacher then asks questions about the text. Or the teacher asks students to retell the content of the text. Another way is to demonstrate using pictures or realia.
There are some life skills reading were given to a class consisting 20 senior high school students. The texts consisting announcements, forms, applications, questionnaires, instructions, labels, recipes, maps, manuals, menus, schedules, advertisements, and directions. After attending seven (7) sessions of 60 minutes, each student was assessed. The assessment conducted using three (3) different kinds of texts. The texts used to assess have never been used for class instructions.
Each student should retell, describe, and demonstrate the texts. In retelling assessment, a teacher provides questions. The other students were given opportunity to ask questions or clarification. The teacher then asks the other students if they understood the text retold by the examinee. For describing technique was done to students who got texts such as announcements, menus, schedules, advertisements, and directions. The same case as the retelling, the teacher and the others students asks questions to the examinee. The demonstration technique was applied to texts such as filling in the forms, instructions, and manuals. For filling in the forms the examinee should ask their classmates to fill in the forms provided by the teacher. The examinee functions as someone who helps others to fill in the form. Therefore, he/she should demonstrate how to do it. Like fill in the form, for “instruction” text the examinee also should demonstrate how the object works using if possible the real object or using the picture.
This research is carried out to 20 senior high school students who studied English at Intensive English Course. Before they joined the course, they are given reading comprehension test. The objective of the test is to know the students English proficiency especially their reading comprehension and their interest on the life skills reading. The test consists of 30 items of multiple choice test and self assessment asking about students’ background knowledge, reading strategy, interests, and reading habits.
After attending seven (7) meetings of class instruction about life skills reading activities the teacher evaluates the progress by giving comprehension test which consists of 30 item multiple choice test and question on the learning strategy and their comments on the class instructions. The method used in this research is descriptive research. This method describes and interprets the assessment result. The data is concerned with the skimming and scanning technique applied to present the life skills reading. The assessment is given to twenty (20) students who attended the whole sessions of presenting the reading materials.
- RESULT AND DISCUSSION
- The twenty (20) students who become sample has the same English proficiency that is high elementary. The conclusion of the test result and self assessment is as follows.
- Reading comprehension score
- 13 student get 13 correct answers
- 2 student get 11 correct answers
- 5 student get 10 correct answers
- Students background knowledge
- 7 know the life skills reading
- 6 students do not like reading
- 4 students ask for help when dealing with life skills reading
- 3 students do not understand when reading the text.
- Students’ reading strategy.
- 10 students do not apply reading strategy
- 2 students guess the meaning
- 3 students do not know skimming & scanning technique
- 2 students consult dictionary when they do not know the meaning of the words.
- 2 students know skimming & scanning technique
- 1 student does not fill in the assessment
- Students’ interest
- 18 students cares about life skills reading but they find difficult to understand
- 2 students do not care about the life skills reading
- Students’ reading habits
- 18 students like reading information in the gadget like facebook, WA and the like
- 9 students like reading articles from the internet
- 2 students like reading the e-book
- 3 students like reading text related their hobbies
- No student like reading books.
- Test result after attending the life skills reading instruction. The test is carried out as described on point 4. “Methodology”
- Reading comprehension score
- 16 students get 25 correct answers
- 3 students get 21 correct answers
- 1 students get 17 correct answers
- “Retelling” session
- 12 students can retell the text without teacher’s help and can answer question both from the teacher and students
- 4 students can retell the text with the help of the teacher in terms of elicitation
- 2 students can retell the text with a few mistakes
- 2 students can retell the text but can not answer the question
- “describing” session
- 14 students can describe the text fluently and can answer questions both from the teacher and students
- 4 students can describe with minor mis-interpretation.
- 2 students can describe the text with a few mistakes.
- “Demonstration” session
- 11 students can demonstrate the text clearly and understandably
- 6 students can demonstrate the text with a few mistakes.
- 3 students can demonstrate the text with slightly daught
- Students’ comments
- 18 students apply skimming and scanning when they are assigned or when they take the final test
- They get benefit from the class instruction and they feel reading is as easy as learning other subjects.
- The enjoyed the teacher’s performance when the teacher gives strategy to understand new vocabulary
- Students’ comprehension and vocabulary are improved.
Compared to the test given before students joining the life skills reading, the reading comprehension score improved drastically from the average 11 correct answers to 21 correct answers. It is clear that the right procedure and the interesting teaching process, the application of skimming and scanning strategy affects the students to understand the text. The students are also interested in attending the lesson. It is proved because during 7 session no student was absent. It is concluded that either the teacher or the materials motivate students to learn seriously
- The retelling, describing, and demonstrating show that students get their confidence to speak in front of the class. Most students perform well when they tell about life skills reading on the oral assessment. They speak fluently and naturally without hesitation. This progress proves that the practice of retelling, describing, and demonstrating during the class instruction can also create students confidence.
- During questions and answer session in the assessment also illustrate that students apply skimming, scanning strategy, and guessing meaning in reading the text before they perform in front of the class. It is concluded that after attending 7 sessions students posses the reading strategy.
- The comment given by students tell the teacher that they like the materials and they enjoy the learning process. When they are asked whether they would continue to read on their own, the students’ answers are positive. Since they know the reading strategy, they would do the reading activity after the program.
The findings above illustrate that life skills reading can arose students’ motivation to build the reading habits. This is because the content of the life skills reading can help students improve their vocabulary and help students understand the reading text which they encounter in their daily life. It also inspires teachers to encourage students to apply reading strategy such as skimming, scanning, and guessing when they read a certain reading text. In this case teachers should train the students in the classroom how to apply the reading strategy.
- Skimming and Scanning technique can help students comprehend the text they read. It is seen from the reading comprehension test result. The comprehension improved from the average of 11 to 21 correct answers.
- The retelling, describing, and demonstrating activities can build students’ confident. It is known from the students’ performance when they do the oral assessment.
- The life skills reading can encourage students to read, it is because the language is meaningful and useful in their daily life.
- Skimming and scanning techniques are appropriate and effective to be applied in the life skills reading.
- An interesting teaching and learning process can create students’ motivation. It is proved because during 7 session no student is absent for class.
- Students comments on the teaching and learning process is positive.
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