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30 THE DIFFERENCE OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY MASTERY

THE DIFFERENCE OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY MASTERY BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS

(Descriptive Study at Fifth Grade Students in Ananda Islamic School)

 

Mary Ika

STKIP Kusumanegara, Jakarta

(maryika011(@gmail.com)

Ayu Muassari

STKIP Kusumanegara, Jakarta

(ayumuassaris@gmail.com)

Audi Yundayani

STKIP Kusumanegara, Jakarta

(audi_yundayani@stkipkusumanegara.ac.id)

ABSTRACT

The objective of the research was to find out English vocabulary mastery between boys and girls, including words size in production.  This was a descriptive qualitative research. The data was taken from students’ writing product. The data analysis was conducted through collecting, reducing and displaying. The research finding showed that, 1) the girls are able to produce more words than the boys; and 2) the girls have more vocabularies amount than boys.

 

Keywords: vocabulary mastery, students’ writing, descriptive research

 

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. Background

Language pervades social life. It is the principal vehicle for the transmission of cultural knowledge, and the primary means by which we gain access to the contents of others’ minds. With language people can share their idea and thought. Language consists of vocabularies or words that have crucial role in process communication.

Children vocabulary acquisition influenced by their culture, background and behavior. They often affect both quality and quantity of the language input children received. Of course, we realize that words convey meaning, and the mental lexicon is a store of word meanings and (presumably) word forms.

Brain has a role like dictionary. We store what we hear or see in our brain and our brain will keep all the vocabularies or words. Many people have perception that girls have wider vocabulary than boys, and the girls prefer to express their feeling, ideas, senses, experiences and memories in their speech, whereas the boys prefer to show their ideas, emotions, feeling by their action. Sure, it related with the difference between girls and boys brain.

  1. The Objective

This study conducted to know the different vocabularies of language acquisition between girls and boys students. How words were learned and arranged in the mind are the interesting areas for researchers. An understanding of how words are retained would help the teachers in improving the language of their students. This study observed some boy students and girl students in Primary 5 (five) in Ananda Islamic School, Kalideres West of Jakarta.  Therefore the purpose of this research was we will know what are their talent and skill for further intelligence development.

This study would benefit to know the different English vocabulary size or English word production between boys and girls. By the finding we can prove that there is an influence of mental lexicon and human brain in the word production. Finally this study could serve as a basis for other researches in the development of acceptable, useful substantial and appropriate related research.

  1. Theoretical Framework

Language is productive in the sense that there is an infinite number of utterances made by connecting existing words in new ways (Crystal, 2005). Our language system is primarily made up of symbols. The relationship between the symbols that make up our language and their referents is arbitrary, which means they have no meaning until we assign it to them. In order to use a language system effectively, we have to learn over time, which symbols go with which referents, since we can’t just tell by looking at the symbol.

Aristotle stressed the semantic scope of human language endowed by the human mind. Again different with Chomsky’s view that human language is innate and universal, it’s to say that human beings are born with a set of rules in their heads about language which termed as universal grammar. Aristotle thought that human language is social and diverse. He regarded human language as a kind of man-made arbitrary symbol. The meaning of this symbol is not from the voice itself, but established by convention among human beings (Qiu, 2004). Language is consist of words, although words aren’t the only things we need to communicate. Vocabulary is the collection of words that an individual knows (Linse, 2005). With that collection of words people combining words and process until make it into sentences and production speaking for communication. Communication make peoples can deliver idea, thought, information and get feedback from listener or just share their experience for each other.

Vocabulary can be classified as receptive (words we understand when others use them) or productive (words we use ourselves). Vocabulary can also be classified as oral or written. Thus, each of us has four vocabularies: words that we understand when we hear them (receptive/oral), words than we can read (receptive/written), words that we use in our speech (productive/oral), and words that we use in our writing (produc­tive/written). The four vocabularies overlap but are not the same, and the rela­tionships among them change over time.

When a person knows a word, it means that, (a) the word is stored in the individual’s mind from where it can be retrieved when required; and (b) that the word is stored in a particular manner which enables the individual to not only recall it (that is to bring it out of storage) when necessary, but also to recognize and comprehend it during listening or reading and to produce it while speaking or writing. Both comprehension and production of language are complete processes involving an individual’s memory which contains mental lexicon

The mental lexicon is known as a mental dictionary which contains information about a word’s pronunciation, meaning, syntactic attributes, and so on (Jackendoff, 2002). In psycholinguistics, mental lexicon is a person’s internalized knowledge of the properties of words. Words in the mind are unlike book dictionaries. Mental dictionaries cannot be organized solely on the basis of sounds or spelling (Aitchison, 2003). The term mental lexicon, as “things, words and the brain”, has become an increasingly salient aspect of psycholinguistic research.

Most people have preferred way to learn. Learning style refers to a range of competing and contested theories that aim to account for differences in individuals learning (Coffield & David, 2004). How we can teach students if we do not know how they learn? And how we improve them if do not know how to enhance their learning? So, it’s important for teacher to know the learning style of the students. There is a strong intuitive appeal in the idea that teacher should pay attention to students’ learning style, in order to achieve learning goals easily. There are some learning style; visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic (Burke, 1979). Many adults learn well by auditory means, but children frequently need visual and kinesthetic leaning style that suit to students. It depends on their mental lexicon and also depend on their brain and their environment.

The human brain is an three-pound organ that controls all function of the body, interprets information from the outside world, and embodies the essence of the mind and soul (Hines, 2016). The brain is the most complex organ in the human body. It produces our every thought, action, memory, feeling and experience of the world. The brain receives information through our five senses: sight, smell, touch, taste, and hearing – often many at one times. It assembles the message in a way that has meaning for us, and can store the information in our memory. Hines (2016) also said in general that the left hemisphere of the brain is responsible for language and speech, it called the dominant hemisphere. The brain is composed of three parts; brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and composed of right and left hemispheres. The cerebrum divideed into four lobes; frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital, and there is broca’s area in frontal lobe that function is to produce speech.  So the people can produce vocabulary from this area of brain. Broca’s area is the motor speech area and it helps in movements required to produce speech. Wernicke’s area, which is located in the parietal and temporal lobe is the sensory area. It helps in understanding speech and using the correct words to express our thought.

Dr. Louann Brizendine provided the technical perspective on the obvious physical differences between the minds of men and women in her appropriately titled book, The Female Brain. She described how the different structures of the male and female brains and the makeup of our hormones work together to produce two very different perceptions of one’s environment and our interactions with others that we encounter within that environment. More than 99% of male and female genetic coding is exactly the same, but that 1% percentage difference influences every single cell in our bodies – from the nerves that register pleasure and pain to the neurons that transmit perception, thoughts, feelings, and emotions (Bridenzendine, 2006).

Here is a list of the differences between women & men brain that related to language based on research studies of the brain done up to now according Niu (2014),

  • Social Context:Women are better at social thinking & interactions than men, while men are more abstract and task-orientated.  This is why women are normally better at communication while men more often prefer relying on themselves to get things done.
  • Emotions:Women typically have a larger limbic system than men, which makes them more in touch and expressive with their emotions.  Women are usually more empathic and comprehensive in thinking, while men focus on exact issues and disregard impertinent information.  Men have a difficult time understanding emotions not explicitly verbalized but can think more logically, while women have a more wholesome view of thinking & understanding but their emotions can sometimes influence decisions.
  • Language:Women are more attuned to words and sounds and are normally better at learning languages. Two brain areas that deal with language are larger in girls, and girls process language in both hemispheres while boys favor single brain half. This is also why men tend to have a harder time expressing emotions verbally.
  • Memory:Women generally have better memory than men.  They have greater activity in the brain’s hippocampus, which is part of the brain that helps store memories. Studies have shown women are generally better at recalling words, names, faces, pictures, objects, and everyday events.

The human brain is also the most talented learning machine we know. So our culture and how we are taught to behave play a big role in shaping and reshaping our brains. If a boy is raised to “be a man,” then by the time he becomes an adult, his brain’s architecture and circuitry, already predisposed that way, are further contoured for “manhood (Brizendine, 2010).

  1. Methodology

Research methodology used a qualitative descriptive method as empirical and theoretical approaches. The data were collected through participants by using writing test and document study.

 

  1. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

The research result through writing test and document study show the difference of language acquisition between boys and girls. The girls are able to write and say more words than the boys. The girls have more vocabularies amount than the boys. The girls can compose more sentences appropriately than the boys. The research prove for all students who were given for 30 minutes to write their activities in the spare time that the girl students are able to write from 143 words to 179 words in the same theme of story and at the same time, whereas the boy students only could write 36 words to 64 words.

Based on the result, we can realize that there is a difference language acquisition and the number of vocabularies that produced by the boys and girls. The girls use left brain hemisphere which is a central language in our brain, as naturally the girls can produce more variable words than the boys. The girls have more vocabularies amount than the boys. The girls like to talk many things such as gossip, their duty, hobbies, lessons, homework and so on that are influenced with their experience. The boys use their right hemisphere that is influenced by hobbies and preferences which make them to show more their abilities than speak.  Boys are twice as likely to have a language or reading problem and three to four times more likely to stutter. Girls do better on tests of verbal memory, spelling and verbal fluency. On average, girls utter two to three times more words per day than boys and even speak faster—twice as many words per minute. Even more convincing, females have at least 20% more neurons than males in the brain’s broca area (where we produce language), and they have as much as 18% more volume in the wernicke area (where we interpret language). There is a lot of evidence that girls’ brains give them a verbal advantage, likewise the data showing that boys’ brains favor spatial skills that make it easier for them to visualize three-dimensional objects from different angles. So, based on this research we know the different vocabularies acquisition between boys and girls that the girls have more variable words than boys.

 

  1. CONCLUSIONS

Based on the findings and discussion of research, it can be formulated some conclusions of the difference English vocabulary mastery between boys and girls that influenced by the different part of brain function between them. Broca’s and Wernicke’s area are the part of brain which have a role in language. Comprehension and production of language are complete processes involving an individual’s memory which contains mental lexicon. The girls use the left brain hemisphere as the language centre which makes them to speak a lot of words that come from their experience lives, whereas the boys use the right brain hemisphere as a talent development which make them more likely to show their action than speak up the language. Girls are therefore thought to be slightly more intuitive, and sometimes better communicators. Boys are often less socially adept, and more task oriented thinkers than girls because two brain areas that deal with language are larger in girls. Because of the differences teacher should understand students learning style.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Evans, Tony Dudley dan Maggie Jo St John. Developments in English for Specific Purposes. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Crystal, David. How Language Works: How Babies Babble, Words Change Meaning, and Languages Live or Die. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2005.

Aristotle, translated by A.L. PecK (1965). Historia Animalium(volumeII), William Heinemann Ltd, London; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Qiu, Wen.  Aristotle‟s Definition of Language. Academic Research Journal. ISSN:2360-7831, volume 2, 2014.

 

Murthy,L. The Representation of Hyponyms in the Bilingual’s Mental Lexicon. A Psycholinguistic Study. Unpublished M. Phil Dessertation. Hyderabad. CIEFL, 1989.

Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, January 2008, Vol. 34, No.1, 181-186.

Jackendoff, Ray. Foundations of language: Brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Haycraft, John. An Introduction to English Language Teaching. England: Longman Group Limited, 1986.

Hines, Tonya. Anatomy of The Brain.  Ohio: Mayfield Clinic / University of Cincinnati Department of Neurosurgery, 2016.

Bridenzendine, Louann. The Female Brain. New York: Broadway Books, 2006.

Coffield, Frank; Moseley, David; Hall Elaine; Ecclostone, Kathryn. Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: a systematical and critical review. London: Learning and Skill Research Centre. ISBN 1853389188, 2004.

Jean Aitchison, Words in the Mind: An Introduction to the Mental Lexicon. Wiley-Blackwell, 2003.

Barbe, Walter Burke; Swassig, Raymond H; MiloneN. Teaching Through Modality Strengths: Concept and Practices. Colombus, Ohio: Zaner-Bloser ISBN 0883091003, 1979.

Othman Aref Al-Dala’ien, Badri Abdulhakim D.M. Mudhsh, Ayman Hamid Al-Takhayinh. Mental lexicon: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 5, Issue 5, 2015 1 ISSN 2250-315

29 PROMOTING DESIGN THINKING

PROMOTING DESIGN THINKING AS A TECHNIQUE ON TEACHING SPEAKING SKILL

Siti Sa’diah, Endah Novita &  Nur Latifah

Universitas Muhammadiyah Tangerang

ABSTRACT

 

Speaking in English as a foreign language is highly complex and challenging skill for Indonesian students. It requires grammar, pronunciation, and vocabulary mastery. It also needs students’ confidence to be brave to share their ideas. This study attempted to promote design thinking that can be used on teaching speaking in order to stimulate the teachers to try to apply this technique on their teaching and to enhance their students’ speaking skill. In order to reach the objective of the study, the qualitative approach was used. Based on the analysis, it showed that the design thinking technique guides gradually the students to overcome the problem situationally and contextually by understanding, observing, pointing view, ideating, prototyping, and testing all ideas related to the problem in order to get the distintive and creative solution. In other words, the students are directed to think critically and brave to share their thoughts in a spoken language. So, the students can get more chance to speak them up and it, certainly, can help the students to increase their speaking skill.

 

Keywords: Speaking skill, Teaching speaking, Design thinking

 

 

 

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. Background

Speaking is considered as one of the most problems faced by English students in Indonesia. They seem really hard to produce sentences in English eventhough they have got an English subject for a long period of time, from elementary school to university level. This problem is due to the fact that they are not confident to share what they thought in a spoken language. They prefer to write it  down or keep silent during the learning process. This could be one of the impacts of teacher-centered learning process in which the teacher fully controls all the activities in the classroom, the teacher talks a lot while the students listen to her/him, and the students are quiet and put all of their focus on the teacher. In other words, the teacher-centered learning process does not encourage the students to be more involved during the learning process in the classroom.

The other problem faced by the students on speaking skill is related to pronunciation. When they hear an English word, it seems too difficult to produce. They are not familiar and accustomed to pronouncing it since it has quiet different rule with their native language. However, they should understand both the written and spoken form in order to understand English so that their can communicate their thought well. In addition, they are lack of vocabulary. They are seldom to look up dictionary when they get difficult words and lack practice when they get new words. They also do not concern on memorizing the vocabulary so eventhough they meet the English subject in every level during the school, they still get difficulty in producing sentences.

Furthermore, the students are afraid of making mistakes. This happens due to their poor mastery on grammar. They are still confused on constructing gramatically correct sentences. They often think what tenses or other grammatical rules should be used before they speak up. These make them passive in classroom. However, mastering grammar is required to avoid misunderstanding of messages that are being conveyed.

The problem also appears on very little time to practice English spoken language. During the learning process, the students mostly do exercises of speaking task in the form of wrtitten task. They are really seldom to practice their spoken language. They are not much facilitated with the activities involved speaking skill. The most frequent speaking activity conducted in the classroom is practicing a model dialog. In this case, the role of the teacher is very needed in order to create various activities to facilitate the students to have more time in practicing their spoken language so that they will be more active in the classroom.

In line with the last problem, the way teachers teach their students give into account to the students’ mastery in speaking skill. The teachers should vary their teaching techniques or strategies to cover the speaking skill. In other words, the teachers should select appropriate and applicable techniques or methods before starting the teaching process, espeacially in speaking skill. So, the learning process will not be monotonous and can engange the students in all activities. In addition, the teacher should start themselves delivering the lessons in English mostly or entirely. This can be another exposure for the students in the case of developing speaking skill. The teachers can be a real model and , of course, a partner for their students to practice the spoken language. Besides, the teachers are confidently able to encourage their students to speak in English since they have applied it in their own teaching. However, as a matter of fact most English teachers use Bahasa (read Indonesian language) during the teaching process. In this case, the students’ understanding of the materials and the target of certain criteria are assumed to be the classical reasons. They think that the materials are not successfully undesrtood by the students if they use English as the main instructional language. When it happens, the objective of the lesson absolutely cannot be achieved.

Concerning the problems described previously, one of the ways that can be done is to modify the teaching and learning process by using the suitable techniques. Therefore, this paper attempted to promote one of the techniques, namely Design Thinking, on teaching speaking skill. Although the technique is applicable in language teaching, only few papers discussed it. So, this paper tried to fill that gap.

According to IDEO (2012), design thinking is a mind-set,”it is about believing we can make a difference and having interactional process in order to get new, relevant solutions that create positive impact” (p.11). In other hand, design thinking is generally defined as a process to develop one’s confidence and creativity to make possitive effect.

Regarding to the education field, design thinking is usually referred to “design-based learning” seen as a model to build up creativity, endurance, engagement, and innovation (Efeoglu, Moller, Boer, 2014). It can be said that design thinking teaches the students to think widely. They should think creatively to generate solution. They are required to think critically and reason logically to solve a complex problem. They are able to explore their ideas toward process and get the product as a result through application of particular form of thinking.

Furthermore, there are seven principles and six phases in conducting the design thinking technique. Both of them are actually interrelated. The principles are as a foundation in order to make the technique sturdy and the phases of process are used as an operational guideline of the principles. Here is detailed description of the principles and procedures of design thinking.

Lande (2010) states there are seven basic principles of design thinking. The first is a human-centred process. It focuses on how to make people as the source of inspiration and direction to overcome design challenges. The second is mindful process in which it requires a critical mindset to have metacognitive awareness. The third is empathy. It is the intellectual identification with or various experiencing of the feelings, thoughts, or attitude of others. It develops through a process ‘need finding’ in which one focuses on discovering people’s explicit and implicit needs. The fourth is culture of prototyping. The mind-set of creating and maintaining a culture of prototyping focuses on being highly experimental, building to think, and engaging people with artefacts. The fifth is show don’t tell me. It takes traditional visualization one step further, as it includes sketching and traditional prototyping, digital communication and storytelling. The sixth is bias toward action focusing on action-oriented behaviour rather than discussion based work. A bias toward action mind-set utilizes all modalities of learning. The last is radical collaboration. It is built upon idea than radically diverse multidisciplinary team will lead to greater innovations of teams that come from the same discipline. Examining and confronting team dynamics is an essential component of radical collaboration. In short, these principles are as a set of main roles in conducting design thinking technique.

Beside those priciples, applying the technique should also consider six components of  design thinking process as proposed by Brown (2012). Here is detail description of the six components.

  • Understand

The first phases of design thinking process is understand. During this phase, students immerse themselves in learning about issues related to the design challenge. They access a wide array of resources that include conversations with experts, viewing multimedia, and conducting research. The goal is to develop background knowledge. They use their developing understanding as a springboard as they begin to address their design challenge.

  • Observe

Students become keen people watchers in the observation phase of design thinking process. They watch how people behave and interact. They talk to people about they are doing, ask questions, and reflect on what they see. The understanding and observing phases of design thinking help students develop a sense of empathy. In this phase of design thinking, the focus is on becoming aware of people’s needs and development.

  • Point of View

In the design thinking process, one must develop a point of view that is based on a specific user statements framed as “How might we …?” questions. Students must synthesize what they learned in the understanding and observing phases. A point of view statement takes into account information about user’s needs and insight. The formulation for point of view is: User + Need + Insight = point of view statement. For example, a student might have interviewed a classmate who said “I hate doing homework because it takes me forever to finish”. A point of view might be “How might we create a way for this student to do his or her homework more efficiently?” an effective point of view statement is one that can be answered in a multitude of ways.

  • Ideate

In the ideation phase, quantity is encouraged. Brainstorming ideas is the foundation of this phase, and students may be asked to generate a hundred ideas in a single session. Students are asked to deter judgment of other’s ideas. Every idea that is suggested is recorded. A supportive classroom climate is essential. Students are challenged to become silly, savvy, risk takers, wishful thinkers and dreamers of the impossible and the possible ones. They work on their design challenges with openness to unexpected ideas and new possibilities as a team where everyone contributes and builds on other’s ideas.

  • Prototype

Prototyping is a rough and rapid portion of the design process. A prototype can be a sketch, model, or a cardboard box. It is a way to convey an idea quickly; the more one produces the more one can learn. A diverse assortment of material is provided to use when one creates prototype, and every prototype is created with the purpose to learn something specific by testing it. It is better to fail early and often as one created prototype.

  • Test

Testing is part of an iterative process that provides feedback. The purpose of testing is to learn what works and what doesn’t, and then iterate. This means going back to one’s prototype and modifying it based on feedback. It means that by doing testing, it can be known the parts that have been reached successfully and the parts that have not.

In addition, the understanding phase is also called by defining. In this phase, the students should work in a group and discuss their knowledge of the specific issue. By working in a group, the students are able to elicit their friends’s knowledge since every student has a chance to express his/her knowledge. During this phase, the students are allowed to gather ideas from any resources in order to build up their background knowledge about the issue. This phase provides the students to be enganged in the learning process.

Observing, as the second phase of the design thinking technique, means “Watch real people in real-life situations to find out how they work, what confuses them, what they like and dislike, and where their needs can be better served” (Noweski et al , 2008, p. 45). In other words, this phase aims to broaden the information that the students have got in the first phase and to make it clear as a stand point about what they are going to deal with. This phase also prepares the students to get ready to ideate phase.

In the third phase, making point of view phase, the students make a formulation “How might that problem become crucial in people’s life?”. The following phase is ideating. In this phase, the ideas collected are generated and organized (Harris and Ambrose, 2010). The students are invited to accept possible ideas so IDEO (2012) claims that in this phase, the students can have brainstorming. Then, they might discuss the answer to generate the ideas in order to get the prototype, which belong to the fourth phase, of solutions. The solutions gained can be tested eventually to get feedback.

Furthermore, some researches focusing on design thinking as a teaching technique have been conducted. They are commonly presented in the form of quasi-experimental method. In this case, design thinking is used as a teatment that will be applied in an experimetal class in order to get empirical data if the technique can increase or decrease the students’ achievement in a certain focus.

One of the researches was conducted by Anderson, N., Timms, C., and Hajhashemi, K. (2014) entitled “Improving Online Learning through the Use of Design Thinking at Australian University“. Two objectives were targeted in this study. First, the students could successfully use design thinking technique to improve their design of online learning activities for school-based students. Second, university instructors could successfully use design thinking to improve online university subject design. In this study, the researchers conducted a mixed-method including participatory observation and semi-structured interviews about academics perceptions of design thinking. The result showed that there were advantages on the use of design thinking on online learning. The design thinking could direct students from a predominantly analytical approach to examining existing models of online learning activities to an approach emphasizing synthesis, creation, innovation, and empathy.

Another research discussing design thinking was conducted by Fatima Zohra Rahmani (2016) with the title “The Effect of Design Thinking as Pre-writing Strategy Paragraphs at Mohamed Kheider University”. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the design thinking as a pre-writing strategy paragraphs at Mohamed Kheider University. In this study, the researcher used quasi-experimental research design with the use of non-equivalent control group class. It is appropriate with the aims of the research that is to measure the objective of the data through conceptual variable and the data gained are presented into statistical analysis. In her research, she concluded that there was a significant difference between the students who were taught by using design thinking and those who were taught by using conventional method. In the other words, the use of design thinking on teaching writing is better than the use of conventional method.

By considering the speaking problems faced by both the students and the teachers, this paper aims to to promote design thinking that can be used on teaching speaking in order to stimulate the teachers to try to apply this technique on their teaching and to enhance their students’ speaking skill. Besides, this paper can fulfill the gap in the term of analyzing design thinking with qualitative approach.

 

  1. Methodology

                  This paper presents a detailed description of utilizing design thinking as a technique which can be applied on teaching speaking skill. The paper describes the theory of design thinking, then, synthesize it in order to get the advantages of applying the technique on teaching speaking skill. Therefore, the study uses qualitative approach. As stated by Cresswell (2008), a qualitative research is oriented on description and exploration of certain phenomena or life issues. Then, the method used in this study is qualitative descriptive.

 

  1. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Concerning the seven principles and the six procedures of design thinking, the teachers are assumed to be able to enhance their teaching and learning outcome. In the case of teaching speaking skill, design thinking provides the students huge opportunities to practice their spoken language during the learning process. It is reflected on all stages of design thinking in which the students should discuss the specific issue in order to get the solution.

Other advantage of conducting design thinking in the classroom, especially on teaching speaking is that it can stimulate the students to boost their confidence. It is trained started from the fisrt phase in which the students are put in goups and each of them should speak up their schemata of the issue that is being discussed. Here, the students are motivated to practice in small audience involving the group members firstly and in larger audience involving the entire of the class member eventually.

Furthermore, design thinking provokes the students to think critically and creatively. The students should dig as many informations as possible among the group members’ knowledge, then, they combine, select, and organize them and try to relate them with the real life so that they can get the distinctive or critical point of view which has good impact. In line with this advantage, Barseghian (2009) conveys that design thinking implication to education provides a process dealing with student’s creativity, and enhance them to explore subject problem and analyze it to depict its specification. In addition as claimed by Kwek (2011), design thinking guides  to get better ideas due to the fact that it can encourage the perpetual deconstruction and building of thoughts that are formerly regarded as static. In this case, the students are trained to be brave to take risk and involve in encountering problems. Therefore, this technique helps the students to design better solutions to the problems which is being discussed.

During the design thinking process, the students should immerse themselves in the learning process. So, they can feel the learning experience and may motivate the students to give their best to achieve the successful learning.

Beside the four advantages, the design thinking contribution on teaching speaking skill can be seen from the teacher’s side. First, since the students more participate, the learning process is more alive and the learning target can hopefully be achieved. Second, the teachers are motivated not only as the intrusctors but also as models to their students. In other words, it means that if the teachers want their students to mostly speak in English, they have to facilitate their students by delivering the lesson with English during the teaching and learning process. Besides, the teachers can use English as a medium interaction or an instructional language not only inside but also outside the classroom. So, they can be good models for their students and the students can have more exposures in a spoken language.

Furthermore, since design thinking provokes the students to think critically, the teachers have a chance to train themselves and measure their critical thinking. This can be functioned as a feedback for the teachers to run the following teaching process. In short, once the teacher can apply the principles and procedures of design thinking on their teaching speaking skill, the success of learning process could be achieved.

To get deeper application on design thinking, here are the proposed classroom activities which consider the principles and procedures of design thinking applied in teaching speaking skill. The objective of teaching and learning process is that students are able to identify orally the purpose, the generic stuctures, and the language features of the argumentative text and tell environmental problems presented in the text in spoken language. Then, the material given is an argumentative text including the explanation of definition, purpose, generic structures, and language features. There will be equipped by the sample of argumentative text being discussed.

  1. Definition

An argumentative text or analytical exposition text tells elaborations of the writer’s idea about a certain phenomenon.

  1. Purpose

There are two purposes of argumentative text. They are: (a) to persuade readers or listeners that there is something that, certainly, needs to get attention and (b) to persuade readers and listeners that this opinion is correct by supplying some supported arguments.

  1. Generic structure

The structure of an argumentative text is divided into four. Those are: (a) thesis introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s position; outlines of the arguments to be presented, (b) arguments consist of point and its elaboration, stating the main argument, (c) elaboration develops and supports each point of argument, and (d) conclusion refers reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s opinion.

  1. Language feature

An argumentative text fosters three points of language feature. They are: (a) focuses on generic human and non-human participants, (b) needs material processes which is used to state what happens, and (c) uses simple present tense.

  1. Argumentative text sample

 

Is Smoking Good for Us?

Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the facts. About 50 thousand people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking.

Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non-smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen times greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non-smokers.

Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non-smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.

Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking, however is not good for health both the smokers themselves and everybody else.

 

  1. Steps of teaching

There will be three meetings covering the material. Each meeting will be presented in the following description.

First meeting

  1. Opening
  2. Teacher greets students and checks students’ attendance.
  3. Teacher gives stimulation to the students.
  4. Main activity
  • Exploration
  1. Teacher shows a picture of smoking.
  2. Teacher asks students “what do you think about this picture?”
  3. Teacher chooses some students to give their opinion.
  • Elaboration
  1. Before the learning process begins, teacher shows up an argumentative text like “Is smoking good for us?”
  2. Teacher asks the students to read the text and understand the content of the text.
  3. Teacher chooses some students to explain the content of the text based on their knowledge.
  4. Teacher explains the definition, the purpose of the text, and generic structure of the argumentative text.
  5. Teacher gives a chance to students to ask about the material given.
  6. Teacher gives the treatment to the students by using design thinking technique. First, the teacher shows a topic of ”Is Smoking good for us?” then the teacher asks the students to give their understanding about the topic showed by the teacher. Second, the teacher asks the students to observe why the topic is needed to discuss, after that teacher chooses students to give their arguments related to the topic. Third, teacher chooses some of students to conclude the students’ point of view.
  • Confirmation
  1. Teacher and students make evaluation of today’s material.
  • Closing
  1. Teacher asks students to tell a summary of the material that has been discussed.
  2. Teacher closes the today’s subject by praying together.

 

Second Meeting

  1. Opening
  2. Teacher greets students and checks students’ attendance.
  3. Teacher conveys the objectives of learning.
  4. Main Activity
  • Exploration
  1. Teacher asks students “Can any one of you tell me about the argumentative text?”
  2. Teacher gives a chance to students to give the opinion about the argumentative text.
  • Elaboration
  1. Teacher reiterates the material of argumentative
  2. Teacher explains well-the ways to understand the argumentative text.
  3. Teacher divides the students to be some groups. Each group consists of six or eight students. It aims to make students to deliver their critical thinking or their point of view of the material.
  4. Teacher gives the topic for the students. Students should understand, observe, and give their argument or point of view by using design thinking technique.
  5. Teacher asks students to start their discussion in each group.
  6. Teacher monitors the discussion.

 

  • Confirmation
  1. Teacher and students make evaluation of today’s material.

 

  • Closing
  1. Teacher asks students to make a summary of the argumentative text in a spoken language.
  2. Teacher closes the today’s subject by praying together.

 

Third Meeting

  1. Opening
  2. Teacher greets students and checks students’ attendance.
  3. Teacher conveys the objectives of today’s learning.
  4. Teacher reviews the previous material.
  5. Main activity
  • Exploration
  1. Teacher asks students “Please tell me about the argumentative text”.
  2. Teacher gives a chance to students to give the opinion about what they have understood.
  3. Teacher asks students to mention the step how to deliver their point of view of argumentative text.
  4. Teacher stimulates students’ thinking with give some questions related to the topic given.
  • Elaboration
  1. Teacher reiterates the material of argumentative
  • Confirmation
  1. Teacher and students make evaluation of today’s material.
  2. Closing
  3. Teacher asks students to summarize orally the argumentative text.
  4. Teacher closes the today’s subject by praying together.

 

 

The teaching and learning process using design thinking described in detail previously provides more time for the students to practice their spoken language. They are also trained to be confident to think critically and convey what they think, feel, and know about the specific issue eventually.

 

  1. CONCLUSION

 

Speaking in English as a foreign language in Indonesia has been a complicated and chalengging skill since it requires self confidence and a lot of practice to develop it. In addition, to be fluent in English involves the mastery of language components such as vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. However, speaking skill has a main role in English learning because it is considered as an international language, mostly used by all people around the world. Therefore, it is necessary to get a technique to solve the problem.

Based on the analysis described previously, design thinking is such an applicable technique that can be used to improve students’ speaking skill. It offers creativity, endurance, engagement, and innovation to gain a good solution for the problems they face. Moreover, it helps the students’ to build up their confidence to share their ideas, thought, and feeling in the form of spoken language. In other words, the students can have more oppurtunities to practice their speaking skill in the classroom.

Seeing on the teachers’ point of view, the technique may motivate the teachers to apply it on their teaching process so that it can indirectly be a scientifical prove that can support or againts the existing theories. It also stimulates the teachers to make the teaching process more various in order to attract the students’s attention and provide interactive teaching process. So, they can increase their students’ speaking skill.

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Ambrose, G. & Harris, P. 1st ed. (2010). Design Thinking. AVA Publishing SA.

Barseghian, T. (2009). Design Thinking: Creative Ways to Solve Problems. In Edutopia.

Creswell, J.W. (2008). Mixed Method Reader. New York: Sage Publication.

Efeoglu, A., Boer, H., Moller, CH. (2013). Design thinking: characterictics and promises. Enschede: Continuous Innovation Network (CINet), 241 – 256. DOI:10.13140/2.1.4737.6642014).

IDEO. 2nd ed. (2012). Design thinking for educators. Retrieved from http://www.designthinkingforeducators.com.

Kwek, S.H. (2011). Innovation in the Classroom: Design Thinking for 21st Century Learning. (Published Master’s Thesis). Retrieved from: http://www. Stanford.edu/group/redlab/cgibin/publications resources.php.

Noweski, CH et al. (2008). Towards a Paradigm Shift in Education Practice: Developing Twenty-First Century Skills with Design Thinking. Hasso-Plattner-Institute, Postdam, Germany.

Rahmani, F.Z. (2016). “The Effect of Design Thinking as Pre-writing Strategy Paragraphs at Mohamed Kheider University”.

 

28 THE BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER

THE BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER OF ANTONY IN THE DRAMA ANTONY AND CLEOPATRABY WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

 

Eny Suprihandani

Thea Jacinda

 

ABSTRACT

 

Literature can be analyzed from many perspectives and point of views. By using psychoanalytic approach, this paper attempts to analyze one of the Shakespearean’s characters, Antony in the drama Antony and Cleopatra. The objective is to prove whether Antony truly suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a personality disorder whose essential features are a pattern of marked impulsivity and instability of affects, interpersonal relationships, and self-image. Psychoanalysis theory is a theory developed by Sigmund Freud that enables to analyze whether a person suffers from a certain mental disease. Using those approaches, the characterization of Antony can be analyzed from his words, thoughts and other character’s opinion about him and then compared to the symptoms of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and then found if they are matched. That Antony suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder can be finally proved.

 

Keywords: psychoanalytic approach, Borderline Personality Disorder

 

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. Background

Drama is one of the classical literary works that are intended to be performed upon the stage. For those who like literary works but do not like to read, drama is a perfect way to enjoy literary works without reading it. Drama comprises speech, movement, design, and or music that make it more enjoyable and attractive. Drama can reflect and affect people who watch it, especially for those who like literary works. It has evolved over the decades, through time and space.

There are various kinds of drama, such as tragedy, comedy, and romance. It has developed in many variations throughout the decades. Tragedy usually tells about downfall, denials, betrayal, and ends with unhappy ending story. Tragedy, mostly round about well-known epic, historical, and or mythological stories, commonly presents a serious theme where mostly the hero accept the responsibilities of his actions and willingly suffer and sacrifice. Tragedy is considered to be the greatest theme because it was mostly written during the greatest period of drama.

Antony and Cleopatra is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. It was written between 1606-1607 in London, England. The Play sets in Egypt, Alexandria and Rome, Italy. The play tells about   the affair of the Roman general Antony and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra, and the quarrel between Antony and Octavius Caesar. Their blind passion leads to their ultimate downfall and deaths. The plot focuses on themes of ambition, power, love, friendship, deception, and disaster.

Antony and Cleopatra can be analyzed from many perspectives. For example, commentators have puzzled for centuries about Antony’s behavior, thoughts, and relationship. His loyalty is divided between the Western and Eastern worlds and torn between duties and pleasures. Some see it as a playground plot a plot of device to prolong the action, and others see it as the result of pressure exerted by the complex philosophical and ethical issues. More recently, psychoanalytic critics have examined Antony’s personality disorder.

The psychoanalytic theory will give much information and lead in finding Antony’s inappropriate behavior and thoughts. This paper focuses on finding much information related to his borderline personality disorder, which can be seen through his activities, thoughts and self-concept as described explicitly in the drama.

 

  1. Objectives

The objectives of this research are (1) to know Antony’s character; (2) to find out the Antony’s conflicts  that influence his characters; and (3) to know the evidence that shows Antony’s Borderline personality disorder.

 

 

  1. Theoretical Framework
    • Character

Lexically character means the mental or moral qualities that make a chief person different from other. (Hornby: 1974) Another definition of character is the principal person or leading person in drama or novel who marks distinctive qualities which make up the person’s personality in the part. (Webster: 1993)

Literally character means a person presented in a dramatic or narrative work, and characterization is the process by which a writer makes that character seem real to the reader. A character can also be defined as any person, persona, identity, or entity that exists in a work of art. Along with plot, setting, theme, and style, character is considered one of the fundamental components of fiction. (Obstfeld. 2002) From the lexical and literal definition above, character can be defined as the person in fiction or narrative works with several qualities that are different with other person.

 

3.2. Classification of Character

  1. Round VS Flat

Round characters are so detailed that they seem real. Protagonists are normally round characters, though notable exceptions exist. Round characters are more complex than flat or stock characters, and often display the inconsistencies and internal conflict found in most real people. They are more fully developed, and therefore are harder to summarize. Antagonists are often rounds as well, though comedic villains may be almost farcically flat. A flat character is distinguished by its lack of detail. However, the description of a flat character may be detail and usually just follows one characteristic.  A flat character embodies one or two qualities, ideas, or traits that can be readily described in a brief summary. They are not psychologically complex characters and therefore are readily accessible to readers. Supporting Characters are generally flat, as more minor roles do not require a great deal of complexity. In addition, experimental literature and postmodern fiction often intentionally make use of flat characters, even as protagonists.

  1. Dynamic VS Static

A dynamic character is the one who changes significantly during the course of the story. Changes considered to qualify a character as dynamic include changes in insight or understanding, changes in commitment, Changes in circumstance, even physical circumstance, do not apply unless they result in some change within the character’s self. By definition, the protagonist is nearly always a dynamic character. In coming-of-age stories in particular, the protagonist often undergoes dramatic change, transforming from innocence to experience.  In contrast, a static character does not undergo significant change. Whether round or flat, their personalities remain essentially stable throughout the course of the story. This is commonly done with secondary character does not change throughout the work, and the reader’s knowledge of that character does not grow, whereas a dynamic character undergoes some kind of change because of the action in the plot.

 

  1. A non-fictional character

A non-fictional character is a character that actually exists or existed in history, though their exploits in the story may differ from their historical activities.

 

  • Conflict
  • Definition of Conflict

Lexically conflict is defined as a state of open, often prolonged fighting, a battle, or war and a state of disharmony between incompatible or antithetical persons, ideas, or interests. (The American Heritage® Dictionary of English Language: 2003) The definition of conflict in Webster Dictionary also means the quarrel between two or more people or community.The definitions are given as follows:

  1. Fight, battle, war
  2. Competitive or opposing action of incompatibles : antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons)
  3. Mental struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, wishes, or external demands
  4. The opposition of persons or forces that gives rise to the dramatic action in a drama or fiction

 

Literally conflict means opposition between characters or forces in a workof drama or fiction, especially opposition that motivates or shapes the action of the plot. Conflict is essential to plot. Without conflict, there is no plot. It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move.

In general, conflict can be defined as the struggles or forces happened between opposing characters, could be between two or more characters, which give rise to the dramatic action in the plot of a narrative work.

 

  • Kinds of Conflict

Generally, there are two classifications of conflict, which are internal and external conflict. The internal conflict is a struggle within one’s self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc. In order words, internal conflict is the conflict between someone and his own self or mind. External conflict is a struggle with a force outside one’s self. Furthermore; there are also four kinds of conflict, which are:

  1. Man versus Man

Conflict that pits one-person against another.

  1. Man versus Nature

A run-in with forces of nature. On the one hand, it expresses the insignificance of a single human life in the cosmic scheme of things. On the other hand, it tests the limits of a person’s strength and will to live.

  1. Man versus Society

The values and customs by which everyone else lives are being challenged. The character may come to an untimely end because of his or her convictions. The character may bring others around to a sympathetic point of view, or may decide that society was right after all.

  1. Man versus Self (Internal Conflict)

Not all conflict involves other people. Sometimes people are their own worst enemies. An internal conflict is a good test of a character’s values. Does he give in to temptation or rise above it? Does he demand the most from himself or herself or settle for something less? Does he or she even bother to struggle? The internal conflicts of the character and how they are resolved are good clues to the character’s inner strength.

Often, more than one kind of conflict is taking place at the same time. In every case, however, the existence of conflict enhances the reader’s understanding of a character and creates the suspense and interest for them.

 

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Definition of Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline Personality Disorder is a highly prevalent, chronic, and debilitating psychiatric problem characterized by a pattern of chaotic and self-defeating interpersonal relationship, emotional liability, poor impulse control, angry outburst, frequent suicidality, and self-mutilation (Skodol, Gunderson, Livesley, Pfohl, Siever,  Widiger, 2002). Borderline Personality Disorder is noted with the impulsivity, affective liability, and self-damaging actions. Borderline Personality Disorder in males is sometimes referred to as the Casanova Disorder and it is one of psychiatry’s best-kept secrets. Perhaps because the behavior or symptoms in males, which are nearly identical to those in women, are considered more accepted by the culture therefore making it more difficult to recognize and to diagnose. This is that cause of the Borderline Personality Disorder based on the book of psychology DSM-IV. This disorder is believed to originate, at least in part during infancy or early childhood, and involves an abusive or emotionally neglectful mothering or primary caregiver.

The mother may be depressed, distant, or simply disinterested her male child. As an adult the male borderline is searching for the female nurturing and affection which he never received as a boy. This is not to negate the biological or genetic component that also seems to play a role in the development of this disorder.

These are the symptoms of Borderline personality disorder for men:

  1. Very romantic
  2. Short-lived relationship
  3. Mood swings
  4. Love addict/love phobic
  5. Narcissistic/insecure
  6. Sensitive to criticism
  7. Suspicious, untrusting, and jealous
  8. Recklessness
  9. Low self-esteem
  10. Suicidal thoughts

There is no cure for Borderline Personality Disorder. However, with the proper treatment and time, patients can make significant improvements. Like most personality disorders, borderline personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age.

 

 

  • The Theory of Borderline Personality Disorder

The concept of Borderline personality disorder was revived by Swiss physician, ThéophileBonet, in 1684 who, using the term foliemaniaco-mélancolique, described the phenomenon of unstable moods that followed an unpredictable course. Other writers noted the same pattern, including the American psychiatrist C. Hughes in 1884 and J.C. Rosse in 1890, who called the disorder “borderline insanity”

Research on the possible causes and risk factors for BPD is still at a very early stage. However, scientists generally agree that genetic and environmental factors are likely to be involved. Studies on twins with BPD suggest that the illness is strongly inherited. Another study shows that a person can inherit his or her temperament and specific personality traits, particularly impulsiveness and aggression. Scientists are studying genes that help regulate emotions and impulse control for possible links to the disorder.

Social or cultural factors may increase the risk for BPD. For example, being part of a community or culture in which unstable family relationships are common may increase a person’s risk for the disorder. Impulsiveness, poor judgment in lifestyle choices, and other consequences of BPD may lead individuals to risky situations.

Most people who have BPD suffer from:

  1. Problems with regulating emotions and thoughts
  2. Impulsive and reckless behavior
  3. Unstable relationships with other people.

People with this disorder also have high rates of co-occurring disorders, such as depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders, along with self-harm, suicidal behaviors, and completed suicides.

 

  1. The Psychoanalysis Theory

Psychoanalysis is a body of knowledge developed by Sigmund Freud and his followers, devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior. It has three applications: 1) a method of investigation of the mind; 2) a systemized body of knowledge about human behavior; and 3) a method of treatment of psychological or emotional illness. Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there are at least 20 different theoretical orientations regarding the underlying theory of understanding of human mentation and human development. The various approaches in treatment called “psychoanalytic” vary as much as the different theories do. In addition, the term refers to a method of studying child development.

Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the “analysand” (analytic patient) verbalizes thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst formulates the unconscious conflict causing the patient’s symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems.

The specifics of the analyst’s interventions typically include confronting and clarifying the patient’s pathological defenses, wishes, and guilt. Through the analysis of conflicts, including those contributing to resistance and that involving transference onto the analyst of distorted reactions, psychoanalytic treatment can clarify how patients unconsciously are their own worst enemies: how unconscious, symbolic reactions that have been stimulated by experience are causing symptoms. There are some classic psychoanalytic theories:

  • Topographic theory

The theory posits that the mental apparatus can be divided in to the systems Conscious, Pre-conscious, and Unconscious. These systems are not anatomical structures of the brain but, rather, mental processes.

  • Structural Theory

This theory breaks the mind up into the id, the ego, and the superego. The ego was composed of those forces that opposed the drives—defensive operation. The superego was Freud’s term for the conscience—values and ideals, shame and guilt. Freud here realized that drives could be conscious, and that consciousness vs unconsciousness was a quality of any mental operation or any mental conflict. Forgetting things could be done on purpose, or not. People could be aware of guilt, or not aware.

  • Ego psychology

The theory was refined by Hartmann, Loewenstein, and Kris books from 1939 though the late 1960s. Hartmann pointed out that there may be delays or deficits in many functions such as sensory perception, motor control, symbolic thought, logical thought, speech, abstraction, integration (synthesis), orientation, concentration, judgment about danger, reality testing, adaptive ability, executive decision – making, hygiene, and self-preservation.

  • Conflict Theory

This is an update and revision of structural theory that does away with some of the more arcane features of structural theory. Conflict theory looks at how emotional symptoms and character traits are complex solutions to intrapsychic conflict. A major goal of modern conflict theorist analysts is to attempt to change the balance of conflict through making aspects of the less adaptive solutions conscious so that they can be rethought, and more adaptive solutions found.

  • Object relations theory

The study explains vicissitudes of human relationships though a study of how internal representations of self and of others are structured. The problems include disturbances in an individual’s capacity to feel warmth, empathy, trust, sense of security, identity stability, consistent emotional closeness, and stability in a relationships with chosen other human beings.

  • Relational psychoanalysis

Relational psychoanalysis emphasizes how the individual’s personality is shaped by both real and imagined relationships with others, and how these relationship patterns are re-enacted in the interactions between analyst and patient.

  • Modern psychoanalysis

This is a body of theoretical and clinical knowledge extended Freud’s theories to make them applicable to the full spectrum of emotional disorders.

 

  1. FINDING AND DISCUSSION
  2. The Characters of Antony

A once fierce and feared soldier who rules the Roman Empire along with Octavius Caesar and Lepidus, Antony, is one of the triumvirate. As the first act and scene, Antony has neglected his duties to Roman Empire by sending off the messenger. Antony keeps teasing Cleopatra. He is really in love with the Egyptian Queen.

His loyalty is divided between the Western and Eastern worlds; he is torn between the sense of duty and the desire to seek pleasure, between reason and passion. While he feels the need to reaffirm the honor that has made him a celebrated Roman hero, he is also madly in love with Cleopatra. This makes him forget about his duty in Egypt and become ignorant. The rumor about his affair with the Egyptian Queen has spread out in Roman Empire and makes him lose his honor.

Antony can be classified into a dynamic character because of his changing in behavior and character. His behavior and character change a lot in many scenes. Antony has so many sides, full of vitality and vigor. He is also a masque and a reveler. The changes appear when in the first scene, Antony grapples his love for Cleopatra and his duties to the Roman Empire. He talks about how deep his love is in a conversation about nature and measures their love, dismisses the duties by sending off the messenger and says that Cleopatra is the most important thing for him rather than Rome. However, in the next scene, he quickly changes his mind. He gets worried about his reputation and blames Cleopatra for all.

Another classification that should be noted is that Antony is also a round character, which is described in detail and complex during the dramatic conflict in his life.

Antony is also a melancholic and often makes reckless decisions. His passion becomes his consecutive character, his notorious pleasure are random and disconnected dissipations without the coherence of single aim. It can be seen that throughout the play he always teases Cleopatra and expresses his love to Cleopatra but he realizes his duty and honor in Rome. These are some dialogues that show Antony’s characters:

1) There’s beggary in the love that can be reckon’d. (I.i.16)

2) Then must thou needs find out new heaven, new earth. (I.i.18)

  • Let Rome in Tiber melt, and the wide arch / Of the ranged empire fall (I.i.35–36)

The dialogues above are Antony’s dialogues before he receives messages from Rome. He tries to show his love to Cleopatra.

  1. She is cunning past man’s thought. (I.ii.124)
  2. Would I had never seen her. (I.ii.130)

In the dialogue above, Antony quickly changes his minds after he receives the news from Rome. He blames the Egyptian Queen for his actions, abandoning his duties to the Rome. His actions, minds, and thoughts are like geographical poles. The best description to draw him in opposite directions represents the conflicts between his reasons and emotions, his duty and his pleasure, and his obligation and his private needs.

The last characterization is that Antony is an egotistical and personal person that he always spends his time for his own pleasure and spends relative little time to think about the Roman Empire. He uses a little time and a little of role as one of the Triumvirate. However, in several scenes, he shows that he is a benevolent general. That makes him possible to be categorized as a dynamic character.

 

  1. The Conflicts of Antony

The very first conflict is when Antony enters one of the rooms of Cleopatra’s palace along with Cleopatra party. Demetrius and Philo are discussing about Antony who has changed in many ways because of his love affair with Cleopatra. In their dialogue, it can be seen that the rumor of Antony and Cleopatra love affair has spread in Rome.

 

PHILO

Nay, but this dotage of our general’s
O’erflows the measure: those his goodly eyes,
That o’er the files and musters of the war
Have glow’d like plated Mars, now bend, now turn,
The office and devotion of their view
Upon a tawny front: his captain’s heart,
Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst
The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper,
And is become the bellows and the fan
To cool a gipsy’s lust.

Flourish. Enter ANTONY, CLEOPATRA, her Ladies, the Train, with Eunuchs fanning her

Look, where they come:
Take but good note, and you shall see in him.
The triple pillar of the world transform’d
Into a strumpet’s fool: behold and see.

………

DEMETRIUS

Is Caesar with Antonius prized so slight?

PHILO

Sir, sometimes, when he is not Antony,
He comes too short of that great property
Which still should go with Antony.

DEMETRIUS

I am full sorry
That he approves the common liar, who
Thus speaks of him at Rome: but I will hope
Of better deeds to-morrow. Rest you happy!

(Act 1 Scene 1)

Antony then faces the truth that he must take the responsible of the loss of Roman Empire in war against Pompey and his wife Fulvia has fought against his own Roman Empire, joining Pompey parties to defeat and taking control of Roman Empire. He regrets his action at the very first scene in act I where he teases and shows his love to Cleopatra.

 

In addition, when he hears that Fulvia has passed away because of sickness, it makes him more upset and feels guilty. It can be seen in the soliloquy of Antony, he regrets his affair with Cleopatra and forgetting Fulvia. Antony is concerned about the cause of the death of Fulvia and other things that he has neglected because of Cleopatra.

 

MARK ANTONY

Forbear me.

Exit Second Messenger

There’s a great spirit gone! Thus did I desire it:
What our contempt doth often hurl from us,
We wish it ours again; the present pleasure,
By revolution lowering, does become
The opposite of itself: she’s good, being gone;
The hand could pluck her back that shoved her on.
I must from this enchanting queen break off:
Ten thousand harms, more than the ills I know,
My idleness doth hatch. How now! Enobarbus!

(Act 1 Scene 2)

 

Antony is on his way from Egypt back to Rome, while Octavius Caesar is planning to defeat and take Antony’s part of the triumvirate. Octavius Caesar feels that Antony has neglected his duty and thinks that the loss of the Roman Empire in a war with Pompei is part of his mistake. This is another conflict that Antony has. This is man versus man conflict between Antony and Octavius Caesar.

 

  1. The Finding of Antony’s Borderline Personality Disorder

 

The play opens in Alexandria, in one of the Cleopatra’s palace rooms. As the play begins, two of Antony’s friends are discussing about Antony’s actions, the way he treats Cleopatra. His increasing fondness to Cleopatra makes him look fool and forget his duty. He only seeks of pleasure.

PHILO

Nay, but this dotage of our general’s
O’erflows the measure: those his goodly eyes,
That o’er the files and musters of the war
Have glow’d like plated Mars, now bend, now turn,
The office and devotion of their view
Upon a tawny front: his captain’s heart,
Which in the scuffles of great fights hath burst
The buckles on his breast, reneges all temper,
And is become the bellows and the fan
To cool a gipsy’s lust.

Flourish. Enter ANTONY, CLEOPATRA, her Ladies, the Train, with Eunuchs fanning her

Look, where they come:
Take but good note, and you shall see in him.
The triple pillar of the world transform’d
Into a strumpet’s fool: behold and see.

…..

PHILO

Sir, sometimes, when he is not Antony,
He comes too short of that great property
Which still should go with Antony.

DEMETRIUS

I am full sorry
That he approves the common liar, who
Thus speaks of him at Rome: but I will hope
Of better deeds to-morrow. Rest you happy!

 

(Act 1 Scene 1)

 

As they ponder their general’s unreasonable behavior, Antony and Cleopatra’s party enters the room. Philo is afraid that all this beauty and pomp will make Antony become an addled lover who once was a fearful warrior of Roman Empire. In the conversation of Philo and Demetrius, it can be seen that Antony has changed in many ways. His behavior indicates that he has indeed let himselfbecome seduced by Cleopatra’s sensuality and charm. As Antony and Cleopatra talk, both of them show their feeling each other by exaggerating their language.

CLEOPATRA

If it be love indeed, tell me how much.

MARK ANTONY

There’s beggary in the love that can be reckon’d.

CLEOPATRA

I’ll set a bourn how far to be beloved.

MARK ANTONY

Then must thou needs find out new heaven, new earth.

……

MARK ANTONY

Let Rome in Tiber melt, and the wide arch
Of the ranged empire fall! Here is my space.
Kingdoms are clay: our dungy earth alike
Feeds beast as man: the nobleness of life
Is to do thus; when such a mutual pair

(Act 1 Scene 1)

 

Cleopatra teases Antony that since he has been unfaithful to his wife, it is quietly that he might not be faithful to Cleopatra too. As the messenger enters the room, Antony casts out the messenger without any intensions to know what the message from Rome is. It can be analyzed that Antony really does not care about what has happened in Rome. But in the next scene, once he gets the news from Rome, he suddenly changes his thoughts and behaviors.

 

 

  1. CONCLUSIONS

Several symptoms and evidences of Antony’s Borderline Personality Disorder can be found. The evidences that Antony has Borderline Personality Disorder are found in the acts and scenes. Antony’s behaviors are like the symptoms such as problems with regulating emotions and thoughts, impulsive and reckless behavior, and unstable relationships with other people prove that Antony suffered from Borderline Personality disorder.

Those manifestations happen in Antony’s life with some complexion and a little difference from the usual manifestation of Borderline personality disorder. Those manifestations can be considered as the evidence of Antony’s Borderline Personality Disorder. They are: (1) Antony is a very romantic person and shows his love to Cleopatra. He tends to be very open when speaking about feelings and romance and he will often proclaim his love early on in a relationship.; (2) Antony feels depressed due to his self-image and his duties and his pleasure; He often experiences mood swings frequently within hours. From being narcissistic and arrogant to being depressed or angry and back to confident again within hours; (3) Antony is a love addict, he loves Cleopatra while he is still Fulvia’s husband and after Fulvia’s death; He is married with Octavia; (4) Antony is very jealous to Cleopatra, it can be seen when Thidias kisses Cleopatra’s hand and Antony asks his guard to whip Thidias and they argue about it; (5) Antony chases Cleopatra’s ships and his reckless and impulsive acts, leaving his army ruined and lose in the battlefield; AND (6) Antony feels desperate when he loses his war because he chased Cleopatra’s ships. He feels so ashamed and wants to suicide by asking Eros to kill him but then he takes his own life by learning what Eros had done.

Antony shows that he fulfills some the Borderline personality disorder by showing his acts, behaviors, and thoughts toward every character and situation. However, even Antony does not fulfill all the symptoms and signs of the Borderline personality disorder, he still has the same ideas and views as the person who severe Borderline personality disorder. It can be concluded that Antony truly suffers from Borderline Personality Disorder by the evidences found in this analysis.

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Aristotles Six Elements of Drama. Retrieved July, 13 2014 from http://www.kyshakes.org/Resources/Aristotle.html

Carter, Ronald and John Mcrae. 1997. The Routledge History of Literature in English. TJ International Ltd.: Padstow Cornwell

Character. Retrieved July 26, 2014, from http://www.bedfordsmartins.com/literature/bedlit/glossary.htm

Cuddon,  J. A. 1998. A Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

 

Definition from Dictionary.com. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/satire

Dictionary.com, Drama. Retrieved April 3, 2014, from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/drama

Editorial Staff of Meriam – Webster.1993.Merriam – Webster Collegiate Dictionary.Massachusets: Merriam – Webster Incorporate.

Elements of Drama. Retrieved July, 13 2014 from http://www.indinetzone.com/2/elements_drama.htm

Reiss, Timothy J.1992.The Meaning of Literature.Comell University Press.

Hornby, A.S. 1974. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English (Revised Edition).

Oxford : Oxford University Press

Literature- A Research and Reference Guide.Retrieved  July 13 2014 from

http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/append/axh.html

Merriam – Webster Online Dictionary, Drama. Retrieved April 3, 2014, from http://www.merriam

webster.com/dictionary/drama

Origin of Comedy.Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://www.thetrehistory.com/ancient/bates001.html.

Reuben, Paul P. PAL: Appendix H: Elements of Drama. PAL: Perspectives in American

 

27 AN ANALYSIS OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE

 

AN ANALYSIS OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE IN AVRIL LAVIGNE SONGS IN ALBUM AVRIL LAVIGNE

 

Abdullah1,  Ugi Rahayu Rahmawati2

STIBA – IEC Bekasi.

abdullahgraha@yahoo.com1, Ugi.victory@yahoo.co.id2

ABSTRACT

 

This research aims to know and understanding the element of literature, especially in figurative language. The objectives of this research are (1). To identify some elements of figurative language are used by Avril Lavigne’s songs lyric. (2). To show the general meaning and detail meaning of the songs containing the figurative language itself in understanding songs lyric. (3). To find out the most and the least used figurative language of the songs. The data source used is the album self-titled Avril Lavigne by Avril Lavigne. In that album the writer chooses five songs to analyzed such as, Here’s to Never Growing Up, Bitchin’ Summer, Give You, What You Like, Hello Kitty, and Sippin’ on Sunshine. This research is descriptive qualitative research. It means that this research does not calculate the data and just gives description about figurative language that is contained in Avril Lavigne songs. It is done by using bold and underlining the songs lyric, classifying the figurative language and then giving the meaning. The result of this research is to discover some kinds of figurative language such as, Metaphor, Simile, Personification, Alliteration, Allusion, Hyperbole, Litotes, also Onomatopoeia.

 

Keywords : Literature, Figurative Language, Qualitative descriptive analysis.

 

  1. INTRODUCTION
  2. Background

Figurative language is language using figure of speech. According to Abrams, “Figurative language is a conspicuous departure from what users of a language apprehend as the standard meaning of words, or else the standard order to words, in order to achieve some special meaning or effect.” It can be clear that figurative language is not common from the language that we use in daily.

Figurative language cannot be separated with figure of speech. Commonly, we can find figure of speech in poem, novel, and song. In this research, the writer choose a song to describe the meaning of the song lyric itself using figurative language.

Song has an important impact of human beings. People use song as a tool to express their feeling, ideas, emotion, and also message for their life. Song it could become a critics of political also for charity activity. Then, the song can use to express the positive and negative message to the speaker’s. Human used a song to show their emotions. They are connected with their situation. If the people are happy, sad, angry, and bored, they certainly use the song to calm down their thought and make it emotion and situation feel better.

Song is a short poem or other set of words set to music or meant to be sung. The singer uses song to show and to expose that the message from our daily. Song is usually followed by musical instrument. So, the song can make the hearer more interested in hearing it, such as in Avril Lavigne songs. The writer chooses Avril Lavigne songs because Avril Lavigne is a song writer and also a singer. She is from Canada, she was born on September 27, 1984. She is one of the best singers in the world. Many people know her songs. She has known her potency in music when she was two years old. She started in church singer and she made a band with her friends. Her talent in music has been admitted in many countries. Her beautiful song lyric that makes people interested to hear it.

Lyric is the words of a popular song. Lyric usually uses figurative language to make a deep and wonderful meaning. In this research, the writer focuses on figurative language of songs lyric. The writer intends to find some kinds of figurative language such as metaphor, simile, personification, apostrophe, alliteration, allusion, hyperbole, understatement (litotes), irony, paradox, metonymy, synecdoche, onomatopoeia. The writer hopes with this research, the reader will know clearly the purpose to analyze songs lyric. Therefore, this research is entitled ‘An Analysis of Figurative Language in Avril Lavigne’s Songs in Album Avril Lavigne’

 

  1. Objective

The objectives of this research are to find out the figurative language and the general meaning used in Avril Lavigne’s Songs in Album Avril Lavigne’.

 

  1. Theoritical Framework
    • Definition of Figurative Language

 

Cristina Caccia and Sam Glucksberg defines that “figurative language is no longer perceivied as merely an ornament added to everyday. It means figurative language not only used in literal meaning but also viewed as powerful communicative and conceptual tool in daily activity. Giora also claimed that “figurative language is literal language be viewed as governed by more general principle of salience, according to which salient meanings are processed first. So, it can be concluded that figurative language is ubiquitous in many forms of discourse, no more difficult to understand in context than literal language. The writer defined that figurative language as a tool to describe expression that usually expressed in figurative meaning or non literal meaning. Most people express their thought or feeling in indirectstatement. They prefer using non literal meaning. In addition, figurative language as the creative imagination of the writer or speakers can give the pleasure to the readers.

 

  • Definition of Song

Song is one of type in literature that can be used in literary term. It may be used to create a more relaxing and fun feeling in each situation. In that case, song can be more helpful to the speaker enjoying the song when they hear it. In Humberto Eco‟s (1979) terms, songs are open text. In Receptive Methods in Music Therapy book, Bruscia (1998) stated songs express who are and how we feel, they bring us closer to others, they keep us company when we are alone. It means that song helps our feeling and sense to express our life stories. Grocke and Wigram also stated songs become popular when the lyrics speak of everyday situations that people experience, for example: relationships, identity, peace, drugs, and aggression.

 

3.3  Definition of Lyric

Abrams says “lyric is any fairly short poem, consisting of the utterance by a single speaker, who expresses a state of mind or a process of perception, thought, and feeling.” In the original greek, “lyric” signified a song rendered to the accompaniment of a lyre. Abrams added “ in some usage, lyric still retains the sense of a poem written to be set to music “. It means that lyric is a set of words that make up a song. From those theories, lyric candemonstrate specific moods and emotions through words. Lyric can also be analyzed from an academic perspective. For example, some lyrics can be considered as a form of social commentary and deliver a positive and negative messages with respect to the sense of unity or lack of unity in music.

 

  • Kinds of Figurative Language
  • Metaphor

The word metaphor is derived from the greek word “ Metaphoria”, which meant “to carry”. Metaphor is a comparison of two different phenomena which share some common point.11It is that makes an implicit, implied, or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated, but which share some common characteristic. In other words, a resemblance of two contradictory of different object is made based on a single or some common characteristics, ( https://literarydevice.net/metaphor/on 27 July 2017 at 08.35 am.). John Searle has claimed that metaphors have a metaphorical meaning which can be explained in terms of the uttere‟s, as contrasted with the literal, meaning. Mark Robson and Peter Stockwell says”using metaphor can be seen as a sort of mental mapping between two domains: a target (the new element that is being focused upon) and a source (which is being used to reconfigure our understanding of the target)” . They added “..in the most famous example from Shakespeare, “Juliet is the sun”.  Where the new target is “Juliet” is understood by reference to the familiar source “the sun”. Kövecses also defined the conceptual metaphors consist of a source and target domain.

George Lakoff and Mark Johnson stated “ Literal language, asumed to be mutually exclusive with metaphor, has been taken to be real stuff of philosophy, the domain where issues of meaning and truth arise and can be dealt with”. So, when we say, “Richard is a lion”, what we are doing is subtituting the expression a lion for brave. Those sentences called metaphor because Richard is not a lion. Lion is expressed the carachter of Richard. However, we can use this comparison to describe an association of a lion with that person.

Christopher gives  another example, “Sally is a block of ice” is to attempt to get us to see her as a block ice. In this sentence, we must really „see‟ here, presumably, not simply as “visual perceive”, but so as to include „visualise‟ and „think of‟ or „imagine‟ (but not „believe‟) “. According to that example, briefly, it can be said that metaphor is commonly useful in literary device. Using metaphor help the speaker to present unfamiliar ideas or situations and also help the readers can create their own creative ideas as a literary works. That is why there are many examples of metaphor can be found in literature.

  • Simile

Rashid Hussain stated ”  The word simile is derived from the Latin word “Simile” meaning „resemblance and likenesses‟, technically it means the comparison of two objects with some similarities “. Abrams also says in simile, a comparison between two distinctly different things is explicity indicated by the word”like” and “as”. In addition, simile is fundamentally a figure of speech requiring overt reference to source and target entities, and an explicit construction connecting them (Gibbs, 1994:40). It can be concluded that simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two different things with using a connectors.

An example of simile is given by Shawn Mendes in his song entitled  Stitches, “Just like a moth drawn to a flame, Oh you lured me in, I couldn‟t sense the pain, you bitter heart cold to the touch, Now I‟m gonna reap what I sow, I‟m left seeing ed on my own.” In that lyic, Mendes compares between physical hurt and emotional pain. In addition, it inspires life-like quality in our daily talks and in the characters of fiction or poetry. Simile allows readers to relate the feelings of a writer to their personal experiences. The use of similes makes it easier for the readers to understand the subject matter of a literary text, which may have been otherwise too demanding to be comprehend.

  • Personification

Abrams says another figure related to metaphor is personification, In the Greek term, prosopopeia, in which either an inanimate object or an abstract concept is spoken as though it were endowed with life or human attributes or feelings. When we say “the sky weeps”, we are giving the sky the ability to cry, which is a human quality. Thus, we can say that the sky has been personified in the given sentence. Writers and poets rely on personification to bring inanimate things to life, so that their nature and actions are understood in a better way. In another example, from Romeo and Juliet, Act I, Scene II by William Shakespeare, “When well-appareled April on the hell of limping winter treads.” In that scene, April is the name of month. It cannot put on a dress and winter does not limp. Shakespeare personifies the month of April and the winter season by giving them two distinct human qualities.

Personification is used to help the writer describe a condition in literary way. Through personification, the reader can be excited to express their condition more powerful and meaningful giving the human qualities related of inanimate objects to our own emotions. It can be concluded that personification is very helpful and useful device for an author for the literary works.

  • Apostrophe

In literature, apostrophe is a figure of speech in which animate or inanimate objects are adressed in the second person as thought present. It is important not to confuse the apostrophe which is a figure of speech and the apostrophe which is a punctuation mark („). This is example for apostrophe using a punctuation mark, “ The boy’s bike is red” The word boy’s using apostrophe “s” it belonging to boy. But, in literary term it is informal apostrophe. Apostrophe is an arrangement of words adressing a non – existent person or an abstract idea in such a way as if it were present and capable of understanding feelings, ( https://literarydevice.net/apostrophe/ on 01 August 2017 at 11.38 am.).

Other example from that site “ an example of apostrophe is given by Mary Shelly in her novel Frankensteins, “Oh! Stars and clouds and winds, ye are all about to mock me, if ye really pity me, crush sensation and memory, let me become as nought, but if not, depart, depart, and leave me in darkness.” Shelly uses apostrophe, because she tries to talking to stars, clouds, and winds which is a death object. But in her imagination, she talks with them. As a simply identification of defining apostrophe in literature, it is addresses a person who is dead or not present, or is an inanimate object that the speaker is addressing as if it were alive

  • Alliteration

Furhormore the contributor of the above site adds “ Alliteration is derived from Latin‟s “Latira”. It means “letter of alphabet”. It is a stylistic device in which a number of words, having the same first consonant sound, occur close together in a series” . Abrams defined alliteration is the repetition of a speech sound in a sequence of nearby words. He adds “ The term is usually applied only to consonants, and only when the recurrent sound begins a word or a stressed syllable within a word “. He also adds examples as follows “ Consider the following examples, “But a better butter makes a batter better”. In that sentence is alliterative because the same first letter of words (B) occurs close together and produces alliteration in the sentence “. The use of alliteration it does not depend on letters but on sounds. It creates a musical effect in the text that enhance the pleasure of reading a literary piece. In fact, alliteration makes a literary works more interesting and easier to remember.

  • Allusion

Abrams states “ a passing reference, without explicit identification, to literary or historical person, place, or event, or to anohter literary work or passage is called allusion “ , and “ Most allusion serve the illustrate or expand upon or enhance a subject, but some are used in order to undercut it ironycally by the discrepancy between the subject and the allusion “.For instance, you make a literary allusion the moment you say, “I do not approve of this quixotic idea.” Quixotic means stupid and impractical derivedfrom Cervantes‟s “Don Quixote”, a story of a foolish knight and his misadventures “. The use of allusions enables writers or poets to simplify complex ideas and emotions. The use of allusion also can help the reader to describe their ideas and emotions more dramatics in daily and literary works.

 

  • Overstatement (Hyperbole)

Abrams says “ The figure of speech, or trope, called hyperbole is bold overstatement, or the extravagant exaggeration of fact or of possibility “. In addition, Hyperbole derived from a Greek word meaning “over-casting”, is a figure of speech that involves an exaggeration of ideas for sake of emphasis”. For both meaning of hyperbole, the writer makes it simply that hyperbole is an exaggeration which is to emphasis an idea. Abrams adds” An example of hyperbole is given by C. Colloid in his novel entitled The Adventures of Pinocchio, “He cried all night, and dawn found him still there, though his tears had dried and only hard, dry sobs shook his wooden frame. But these were so loud that they could be heard by the faraway hills …”. Collodi emphasis all night to exaggeration the crying of Pinocchio until his tears became dry. By using hyperbole, a writer or a poet makes common human feelings remarkable and intense to such an extent that they do not remain ordinary.In fact, hyperbole is used for the writer to catch the reader‟s attention.

 

  • Understatement (Litotes)

“ Litotes, derived from a Greek word meaning “simple”, is a figure of speech which employs an understatement by using double negatives or, in other words, positive statement is expressed by negating its opposite expressions, “ ( https:// literarydevices.net/litotes/) “. According to Abrams, “ understatement represent something as very much less in magnitude or importance than really is, or is ordinarily considered to be “. “Saying, “She is not a beauty queen”, means “She is ugly”. ” The example shows a negative statement by negating the positive expression. Litotes uses ironical understatement in order to emphasize an idea or situation rather than minimizing its importance “.

  • Irony

Abrams defines Irony as follows “ Irony is a statement in which the meaning that a speaker implies differs sharply from the meaning that is ostensibly expressed “.” It may also be a situation that ends up in quite a different way than what is generally anticipated ( https://literarydevices.net/irony/)”. Irony have a three most common uses, they are: (1) verbal irony is when a speaker says one thing but means another. For example, in Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare.

“ Act I Scene V, “ Go ask his name: if he be married. My grave is like to be my wedding bed.” In this scene, Juliet commands her nurse to find out who Romeo was, and says if he were married, then her wedding bed would be her grave. The audience think and knows that she is going to die on her wedding bed ( https://literarydevices. net/irony/)”.  (2) situational irony is when something happens and reversal of expectations occurs. For example, in Harry Potter by J.K Rowling, Harry Potter series is one of the most popular novels having employed situational irony. Until seven novels, the audience believes that Harry can kill Voldemort, the evil lord. However, the audience is thrown off guard near the end of this series when it becomes clear that Harry must allow evil lord to kill him, so that Voldemort‟s soul could become mortal once again. Hence, Harry allows himself to be killed in order to defeat Voldemort, which is exactly the opposite of the audience‟s expectations. By using situational irony, Rowling has actually done a great job of adding a twist to the story to create a complex conflict ( https://literarydevices. net/irony/)”. (3) dramatic irony is frequently employed by writers in literary works. In dramatic irony, the characters are oblivious of the situation, but the audience is not. For example, in dramatic comedy movie, There‟s Something About Mary by Jonathan Richman‟s, “I‟ve done it several times before‟ and „it‟s no big deal,‟ generate laughter.” This looks quite funny due to this misunderstanding when Ted thinks that the police have arrested him for picking up hitchhiker, the audience knows that the police interogate him about a murder ( https://literarydevices.net/irony/)”.

“ In simple words, it is a difference between appearance and reality. Ironical statements and situations in literature develop reader‟s interest. Irony makes a work of literature more powerful meaning, and force the readers to use their imaginations to comprehend the underlying meanings of the text. Moreover, real life is full of ironical expressions and situations. Therefore, the use of irony brings a work of literature to the life ( https://literarydevices.net/irony/)”.

  • Paradox

“ The term Paradox is from the Greek word “paradoxon” that mean contrary to expectations, existing belief or perceived opinion “ (https://literarydevices.net/paradox). Abrams also defines “ a paradox is a statement which seems on its face to be logically contradictory or absurd, yet turns out to be interpretable in a way that makes good sense. “ In literature, paradox is not just a clever or comical statement or use of words” https://literarydevices.net/paradox. In play of Shakespeare, Hamlet says, “I must be cruel to be kind.” This announcement  does not seem to make sense. Hamlet is talking about his mother, and how he  intends to kill Claudius to avenge his father‟s death. This act of Hamlet will be a  tragedy for his mother who is married to Claudius. Hamlet does not want his  mother to be the beloved of his father‟s murderer any longer, and so he thinks that  the murder will be good for his mother ” https://literarydevices.net/paradox). Some types of paradox in poetry are meant to communicate a tone of irony to its readers as well as lead their thoughts to the immadiate subject. “ Paradox create feelings of intrigue and interest in reader‟s minds to make them think deeper and harder to enjoy the real message of the poem” https://literarydevices.net/paradox).

  • Metonymy

“ Metonymy is a figure of speech in which in author uses a word (or words) for another word (or words) based upon either a sequential, spatial, temporal, or attributive association between the two “https://www.sil.org/…/Metonymyand Synecdochein theNewTest….).  “ For example, the word “kettle” is quite distinct in meaning from “water”. The meaning of the word “kettle” has been extended so that it is substitutable for “water”, even though this extended meaning is restricted in distribution to this one syntactic combination “https://www.sil.org/…/ Metonymyand SynecdocheintheNewTest).  “ Another example, the word “crown” which means power or authority is a metonymy. Both of metonymy between synecdoche resemble each other but are not the same. Synecdoche refers to a thing by the name of one of its parts and metonymy, the word we use to describe another thing is closely linked to that particular thing, but is not a part of it “ (from  https://literarydevices.net/metonymy/).Saying, “Let me give you a hand”, it is describe the hand closely linked to help other people. It means giving a hand is giving a help for other person. Furthermore, metonymy, like other literary devices, is employed to add a poetic color to words to make them come to life. The writer makes it simple, metonymy is literary works that describe in a creative way to give more profound meaning from ideas and objects.

  • Synecdoche

John Beekman defines Synecdoche as follows” Synechdoche , like metonymy, is based upon association. It is defined as a figure of speech by which the whole of a thing is put for a part, or a part for the whole ”. The word “boots” usually refers to soldiers. Because boots is a part of whole soldiers and it is became identic things. “ Another example is given by Frank R. Stockton in The Lady or the Tiger? , “His eye met hers as she sat there paler and white than anyone in the vast ocean of anxious faces about her.” Faces is refers to people (not just their faces). Faces means is a whole part body of people “ ( https://literarydevices.net/metonymy/). Abrams assumes that “ By using synecdoche, the writers give some common ideas and objects deeper meaning and thus draw reader‟s attention and describe simple ordinary things creatively with the aid of this literary device “.

  • Onomatopoeia

Abrams states “ The other part of figurative language is Onomatopoeia. It is sometimes called echoism. It is used both in a narrow and in a broad sense “. Abrams adds “ Onomatopoeia designates a word, or a combination of words, whose sound seems to resemble closely the sound it denotes: “hiss”, “buzz”, “rattle”, “bang”. The perceived similarity is due as much to the meaning, and to the feel of articulating the words, as to their sounds”. “ Onomatopoeia also defined as a word, which imitates the natural sounds of a thing “. “ For instance, saying, “whisper” is not only represents the sound of people talking quietly, but also describes the action of people talking quietly”.  “ An example onomatopoeia is given by Lerner and Loewe in Get Me to the Church on Time, “I‟m getting married in the morning!, Ding dong! The bells whole “ .” The word “boots” usually refers to soldiers. Because boots is a part of whole soldiers and it is became identic things. Another example is given by Frank R. Stockton in The Lady or the Tiger? , “His eye met hers as she sat there paler and white than anyone in the vast ocean of anxious faces about her.” Faces is refers to people (not just their faces). “ Faces means is a whole part body of people “ . “ By using synecdoche, the writers give some common ideas and objects deeper meaning and thus draw reader‟s attention and describe simple ordinary things creatively with the aid of this literary device  (https://literary devices.net/metonymy/).

 

  • Onomatopoeia

Abram says “ The other part of figurative language is Onomatopoeia. It is sometimes called echoism. It is used both in a narrow and in a broad sense “. He adds “ Onomatopoeia designates a word, or a combination of words, whose sound seems to resemble closely the sound it denotes: “hiss”, “buzz”, “rattle”, “bang”. The perceived similarity is due as much to the meaning, and to the feel of articulating the words, as to their sounds “. “ Onomatopoeia also defined as a word, which imitates the natural sounds of a thing “ ( https://literarydevices.net/ metonymy/)”.  “ For instance, saying, “whisper” is not only represents the sound of people talking quietly, but also describes the action of people talking quietly “ ( https://literarydevices.net/metonymy/). An example onomatopoeia is given by Lerner and Loewe in Get Me to the Church on Time, “I‟m getting married in the morning!, Ding dong! The bells are gonna chime.” The word “ding dong” is the sound of bells ringing. In addition, it makes the description livelier and interesting, appealing directly to the senses of the reader. It can be concluded that onomatopoeia is literary works to create emphasis of the sound effect. On the other hand, onomatopoeia helps the reader to hear the sounds the words they reflect. The writer makes the reader‟s feeling to enthusiastic to hear it and exciting to imitate the sound.

 

  1. Methodology

In analyzing figurative language of Avril Lavigne songs lyrics in album Avril Lavigne, the writers focuses on figurative language using qualitative research methodology. The data for this analysis are taken from several books, and internet as well as the lyrics. And to increase resources about the research the writer goes over listening to the music, analaysing the lyric, and grouping into figurative language.

 

  1. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This part is a process analyzing from data taken. The writers take data from

type  Avril Lavigne songs in Album Avril Lavigne. The process is divided into three  parts. First the lyric of Avril Lavigne songs in Album Avril Lavigne, second type of   figurative Language, and the third is the meaning of Figurative Language. Here are the slected song of Avril. The writers have already analyzed some lyric songs, but now the writers will only take one lyric song with title “ Here to Never Growing  Up” as example. While other lyric songs summarized in the result of the research.

 

  1. Here’s to Never Growing Up

 

Table B.1 : List of Figurative Language Used in Here’s to Never Growing Up

 

  The Lyric Figurative Language Explanation
Comparing between
Radiohead and Avril
Singing Radiohead at the top Lavigne. Radiohead
is one of the famous
1 of our lungs, With the boom Metaphor
band in the world
box blarin’ as we’re fallin’ in
who had been
Love
inspired to using
subject youth
rebellion with the same themed of
Avril’s video clip. It
means, when you
sing a song of Avril
you should be singing
out loud like you
sing a song of
Radiohead band.
Comparing two
different object, yeah
whatever and still
living like that
through connector
2 I’m like yeah whatever, we’re Simile like which have
things in common.
still living like that
Whatever you are
doing is still the
same and you living
the same rule and
also never change
anything.
Positive statement is
expressed by
negating its positive
3 I don’t think we’ll ever Litotes expression. Instead
Change of saying being
young, she preferred
I don’t think we’ll
ever change.
Posotive statement is
expressed by
negating its positive
expression. We don’t
ever stop, and we’re
4 We don’t ever stop, and we’re Litotes never gonna change
never gonna change is negative
expression which
from the positive
statement we can
stop, and we’re ever
change.
Oh whoa, oh whoa, here’s to Giving the same
5 never growing up Alliteration sound / o / and / w /
Oh whoa, oh whoa, here’s to . Repeating the
never growing up sound on the chorus.
Comparing two
different object, we
and rock star
through connector
6 We live like rock stars, dance Simile like which have
on every bar things in common.
Avril Lavigne as a
rock star and we can
living like her with a
rock style.

 

 

There are four types of figurative language that the writer found in this song. They are : Metaphor, Simile, Litotes, Alliteration. Other lyrics are : Bitchin’ Summer, Give You What You Like, Hello Kitty, Sippin’ On Sunshine.

Based on the table of list of al figurative languages from table, the writers classified some kinds of figurative language that found in selected songs into a table and including for the amount precentage of each of them. Referring to the table above, its figurative language are summarized in the following table. The other tables of figurarive languages attached in appendix

 

Table B.2 The Percentage Use of Figurative Language

 

No Figurative Language Total Percentage
1 Metaphor 1 3.6%
2 Simile 7 25%
3 Personification 6 21.4%
4 Hyperbole 5 17.8%
5 Litotes 2 7.14%
6 Alliteration 5 17.8%
7 Allusion 1 3.6%
8 Apostrophe 0 0%
9 Irony 0 0%
10 Metonymy 0 0%
11 Onomatopoiea 1 3.6%
12 Paradox 0 0%
13 Synecdoche 0 0%
Total 28 100%

 

 

  1. CONCLUSION

The last is about what figurative language widely used in Avril Lavigne  songs.It can be seen from the table of percentage above, it is simile with the total use is  Or 25%. It can be conclude that the singer of the songs comparing two  different objects to describe the songs are relate the feelings into personal  experiences. In addition, it also can be categorized that simile belongs to the  easiest figurative language to use in Avril Lavigne songs.

After that, what figurative language used least in Avril Lavigne songs. The percentage shows are metaphor, allusion, and onomatopeia only one times or 3.6%. The singer used those figurative language very minimally in her songs. Then, for apostrophe, irony, metonymy, paradox, and synecdoche is not even up to one percent. The singer may prefer, compare two different things which have similarities and the use of a connector, to play on the song lyric. Therefore, she  only adding some the least figurative language for making the song more  interesting .According to the above discussion, researchers would like to briefly  conclude that the songs dominant of simile as the most widely used in her songs.

The total use of it is 7 or 25%. On the other hand, she has used metaphor,  allusion and onomatopoeia with very few. Only one examples of those did the  researcher find in this songs with the percentage is 3.6%.

 

 

 

 

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