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24 The importance of submitting mini plan

THE IMPORTANCE OF SUBMITTING MINI PLAN BEFORE TEACHING ENGLISH AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT INTENSIVE ENGLISH COURSE BEKASI BRANCHES

Abdulloh

STIBA –IEC Bekasi

abdullahgraha@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the importance implementation of lesson plan” Mini Plan” to improve the competence of the perspective teacher of English at one of the English schools, IEC in Bekasi. The competence in this study referred to the competence of preparing lesson plan and implementing classroom practice using mini lesson plan . This research conducted on population of 30 teachers and sample of 7 teachers of English clasess in IEC Bekasi. This study was descriptive study. This study tells us the condition before the implementation of submitting mini plan and after that implementation.The result shows that the readyness, professioanalism, achievement of the teachers before teaching, and the students retention in class are increased.

A. INTRODUCTION

1. Background

Teaching preparation always required by almost all teachers, instructors, lecturers or all educators in almost all subjects either for experienced or inexperienced educators. Teaching preparation consists of activities of planning the syllabus, designing the lesson plan, designing the material, the method of delivering the lesson, and the evaluation. Research shows that teachers who have less preparation will show the low performance in the class, while those who prepare well before, come 15 to 30 minutes before the class, prepare many things like pictures, cards, and all teaching and supported materials show higher performance in the class. The retention of students is better than those who have no preparation.

Many teachers who feel that they have longer time of teaching experience ( senior) , especially in English school or English course are reluctant to prepare lesson before their teaching. They feel and assume that their planning of teaching is in their minds or heads. They don’t need to write the preparation. They come to the school and directly go to the class. They come and look for the book in the teacher’s shelf and go to the class if they come to the course or school almost time to start the class. Such condition happened for long time before the new regulation or policy of submitting or writing the lesson plan implemented. It happened in IEC for the decades.

The condition and the culture among teachers influenced much. Senior teachers who rejected to submit the lesson plan, became the virus to the new and young teachers who will still develop their skill of teaching. The school management then applied the new first rule or regulation of writing the lesson plan” mini plan” before teaching. Many young and diligent teachers obeyed the rule. They wrote the lesson plan and submitted to the principal or school manager. During the implementation many young and diligent teachers saw many senior teachers didn’t make or write the lesson plan. Finally the senior became the virus to the young ones, and they stopped writing the lesson plan. The school rule and school regulation of making lesson plan disobeyed by many or almost all teachers. They said that there would be no influence in their performance if they don’t submit the lesson plan.

Seeing and observing such condition, school management tried to implement the new second rule, now the component of mini plan included in teaching record or teachers’ salary. The component includes total session times rate, mini plan, attendance, bonus pe rstudent who pays the school fee. The component of lesson or mini plan is big in each session. If one day there are three sessions, teachers should submit three mini plans before their teaching. In the beginning, teachers feel burden to write and submit their mini plan before teaching. They should come 15 to 30 minutes before class. They sit down to write the mini plan in teachers’ room. Management provide printed small lesson plan / mini plan, teachers just write their plan in short operation sentences. The teacher’s room looks very conducive, junior and senior teachers prepare the mini plan. Management will not punish teachers who don’t submit the mini plan but the system will deduce or punish them. If they don’t submit the mini plan, recording system will reduce the teaching fee automatically. Finally either junior or senior teachers obey the rules, and no rejection from teachers because it becomes the system.

 

2. Objective.

The objectives of the paper are : to show the importance and effectiveness of making lesson plan “ mini plan” before teaching, to show the significant influence of mini plan to the teachers’ performance, and to prove that submitting mini plan will fruit much to the class retention. The rule or regulation of submitting mini plan will show positive culture among the teachers in any condition and this rule already includes in the system of recording of teaching . And now, it becomes the system.

 

3. Theoritical Framework

3.1. Pre-Planning Activity

Before we start making a lesson plan Jeremy Harmer (2003: 308) proposes to consider some components such as:

1) Students’s Language level.

2) Students’ educational and cultural background.

3) Students’ motivation level.

4) Students’s learning style.

Those accomponents are quite helpful in Pre-planning activities. Teachers will have complete guidance what to do, where to start, and how to do it. By knowing all components, it will ease teachers to plan the lesson

3.2 Lesson Planning

The above components are very important components before writing the lesson plan. Jeremy Harmer (2003:308) adds “ lesson planning is the art of combining a number of different elements into a coherent whole so that a lesson an identity which students can recognise, work within, and react to- whatever metaphor teachers may use to visualise and create identity. “ The elements should be combined are:

1) Activities.

2) Skills.

3) Language

4) Content.

 

3.3. Mini Plan

If we hear lesson plan we will imagine some long written step of teaching from very beginning to the end of the lesson. Start from the subject, length of time, general objective, specific objective, the beginning of the lesson (pre activity), whilst activity, post activity. We plan one and half hours of teaching but we have to prepare it more than that number of time. That’s why lesson plan will burden teachers and they always avoid to do it.

Then the format and content of the lesson plan simplified into shorter form and content, and we change the name of lesson plan into “ mini plan”. It is simple, operational and teachers feel easier to prepare. Here are the following format of short lesson plan or mini plan.

MINI PLAN

Teacher/Co-Teacher : ……………………………………………………………

Day and Date :……………../……………./…………../………………..

Time : …………………………………………………………..

Book/Level : ……………………………………./……………………

Topic/Lesson : ………………………………………………………….

Objective : Students are able to : ……………………………

…………………………………………………………..

Supporting Materials : …………………………………………………………

Teaching Aids : …………………………………………………………..

Steps of Teaching : ………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Prepared by Observed & Checked by

……………………………… …………………………………….

Teacher/Co-teacher Supervisor/School Manager

 

3.4. Why Mini Plan

If we compare the lesson plan with mini plan, we will conclude that mini plan is customized to the teachers. By submitting the mini plan, teachers and school will get many benefits such as:

1. Teachers will not come late to the class.

They will come earlier15 to 30 minutes before the class. Teachers will come to class punctually. If they come in time they will not submit the mini plan but they still won’t come late to class.

2. Teachers will be well prepared.

Before teaching teachers prepare with the material or the book, check the journal of teaching, the last unit or topic they taught last meeting. The creative and active teachers will prepare much more activities such as preparing the pictures, card, and some other supporting materials.

3. If they are well prepared, the class will be alive, interesting, enjoyable, effective, and efficient.

4. If the class enjoayable, efficient, and effective, the objective of teaching will be achieved.

5. If the objective of teaching achieved the students performance will be achieved.

6. If the atmosphere of the class good, the retention of the class will be good.

7. If teachers submit the mini plan, it will be calculated each mini plan with the significant fee based on the level or grade of the teachers. The more senior the teacher, the more fee they will have.

3.4. Teachers’ Role.

When mini plan is made or submitted we can’t forget the role of person behind it, a teacher. Teacher has very important role before and after the teaching learning process. Volkan Cicek in his journal quotes Marzano statement about the role of teacher. Marzano (2003:1) says that “ research reveals that the teacher is probably the single most important factor affecting students achievement in a study with 60,000 students”.

Teacher who has succes in achieving learning is an effective teacher. (Wong 2009:1) describes effective teachers in his book “ How to be an Effective Teacher” as follows:

1. An effective teacher has positive expectation for student’s success, and lesson plan reflects such expectations.

2. An effective teacher knows how to design lessons for mastery , which is reflected in lesson plan.

3. An effective teacher is an extremely good classroom manager; which is possible via good time management during class time and that is possible only by effective implementation of a good lesson plan.

From the three descriptions of an effective teacher all realated with lesson plan. It can

be summarized that an effective teacher is a teacher who has a good lesson plan in his or her teaching.

4. Methodology

This study used in this paper is decriptive research method that describes the importance of preparing lesson plan, simplifies lesson plan into mini plan prepared and submitted by teachers of English classes in Intensive English Course premises practically and theoritically . The population of reasearch consists of six branches of IEC or consist of 30 English teachers. with one branch of IEC as the sample of research consist of five English teachers.

 

B. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

This study doesn’t aim at proving the relationship and the effect of lesson Planning on teachers’ performance , but it aims at aims at telling the importantnce of making lesson plan before teaching, modifying or simplifying lesson plan into mini plan, presenting the general outline and knowledge of lesson plan, and presenting the format of mini plan. It also used descriptive methodoly in the analysing the importance and the benefit of making and preparing the mini plan, teachers’ performance after making mini plan, and comparing the retention of the class before and after making the mini plan. The writer still has big intention to continue the reasearh using different research methodology to prove and to find out the relationship or effect of lesson plan on teachers’ performance, that is by using quantitative reasearch method.

In general the writer can conclude that lesson plan ‘ mini plan is one of the effective ways in teaching English classes. The students’s perception, the positive attitude from teachers, students learning motivation is increased. Those all can be proved easily by observing class retention data. Here is the data taken from 7 sample teachers of population of 30 English teachers .

 

Class Retention in three levels : 9-12 months Before Mini Plan Implemented

No. Teacher Students’ number in the beginning of Level

, Level

Students’ number at the end of Level for 3 Levels Retention Percentage
1. A 9 ,Adult Elementary 2 5 -4, >> 55%
2. B 8, Adult Elementary 1 4 -4, >> 50%
3. C 12, Children Class, BO3 6 -6. >> 50%
4. D 14, Children Class, BO4 6 -8, >> 43%
5. E 8, Adult, Intermediate 2 4 -4, >> 50%
6. F 12, Children Class BO1 5 -7, >> 42%
7. G 15,Children Class BO2 6 -9, >> 40%

 

Class Retention in three levels : 9 -12 months After Mini Plan Implemented

No. Teacher Students’ number in the beginning of Level Students’ number at the end of Level for 3 Levels Retention Percentage
1. A 10 ,Adult Elementary 1 8 -2, >> 80%
2. B 9, Adult Elementary 2 7 -4, >> 77%
3. C 13, Children Class, BO1 10 -6. >> 76%
4. D 14, Children Class, BO2 12 -8, >> 88%
5. E 10, Adult, Intermediate 1 7 -4, >> 70%
6. F 10, Children Class BO3 8 -7, >> 80%
7. G 12,Children Class BO5 9 -9, >> 75%

 

C. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

1. Conclusion.

Observing some journals of presentation, experiment done in classes or real practical classes, it is true and proved that lesson plan or mini plan is an effective way for improving teaching learning quality. It also improves spirit and healthy competition among teachers, increases teachers’ discipline for coming and preparing the lesson, keeps class or students retention. At last teaching learning process promotes students learning. Many activities done by teachers before class. Starting from pre-lesson planing, choosing the topic, browsing the materials, reading and selecting materials, preparing the supprted materilas, and manging the class well.

2. Suggestions.

There must be follow up research of preparing the lesson palan or mini plan with different methodology to prove the effectivenes realationship and effect of mini plan toward the teachers’ teaching performance. Some journals of presentation say so, that nowdays only few research of presentation done in college classes. The writer invites other writers to complete this study for further research thoroughly. Since this paper also presents how important of planning the mini plan, the writer suggest some teachers in english schools or courses apply it to make class retention good, at the end the schools or courses will grow well. Lesson planning or mini plan is already available in college with very complete and detail in the forms of syllabus or course outline. All lecturers in college already apply this for their classes, not only English but also all subjects.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Cicek, Volkan.(2013). Effective Use of Lesson Plans to enhance Education. International Journal of Economy, Management and Social Sciences, 2 (6) June 2013, Pges: 334-341

Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching, 3th edition,USA: Pearson Longman, 2003.

King, J. (2002). Preparing EFL learners for oral presentations. Journal of Humanistic Studies, 4, 401-418. Retrieved August 20, 2012.

Marzano, R.J,: Marzano, J.S. Pickering, D.J. (2003) Classroom Management That Works: Reasearch -Based Strategies for Every Teachers, association for Supervision & Curriculum development Publications, I

Nesar, Ali Jamali (2014). The important of Lesson Plan on educational Achievement of iranian EFL Teachers’ Attitude. Internatioanl Journal of foreign Language Teaching and Research- Volume3, Issue 5, Spring 2014.

Wong, H.K.: R.T. (2009). The first Day of School: How to be an Effective Teacher, Harry K. Wong Publication, 12, 81, 87.

 

23 Improving english speaking skill

IMPROVING ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILL THROUGH “ROLE-PLAY”TECHNIQUE

Ikhwan Muslim

STIBA-IEC Bekasi

ikhwanmuslim91@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The Purpose of this study is to get the empirical knowledge of the Role-play technique to improve speaking ability, to know if the role-play effective in teaching speaking, to find the answer if the role is effective to improve English speaking ability. The technique of the research is qualitative. The data from field was done through observation in the classroom. Here the writer directly taught the students and observed students’ activities in speaking class. The writer explains the finding and gives some samples of role-play technique, activities in teaching and how to teach speaking through role-play technique.

 

A. INTRODUCTION

1. Background

Nowadays, many English courses are available anywhere in regions. People who want to improve their English speaking ability are provided by so many facilities. The big number of members in the public courses is one the proof that teenagers or even children are having a big desire to be able to speak English. However, though so many English courses are provided it doesn’t means that people will directly have any confidentiality to join and speak.

Actually, English materials in classrooms do not meet their needs in learning English since students still seek for other places to learn English more. Most of students learning English in the classroom are always passively involved in its learning process.

Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. Many techniques can be applied including role play because many research findings say that this technique is effective to use in teaching speaking.

Role-play is an alternative to using the English language as much as possible. When compared with the method of discussion that sometimes saturate and more dominant in the discussion in general that the smart students, while other students just silent. In the “Role-Play” every student is given the opportunity to speak with a more lively atmosphere for any student interested in playing the role not as the discussion was dominated by good students in speaking English.

2. The Objective

Based on the problem above, the objective of this study is to get the understanding about how to teach speaking through role-play technique and the effectiveness of role-play for teaching speaking.

3. Theoretical Framework

Theodore Huebner said in his book “Speaking is a skill used by someone in communication in daily life whether at school or outside. The skill is acquired by much repetition; it is primarily a neuromuscular and not an intellectual process. It consists of competence in sending a receiving message.

According to Chomsky, (in Brown, 2008: 33) Speaking skill is the capability to other the articulation to express, to state or deliver though, opinion and wish to the other person. The People who know a language called as speaker of the language. Speaking includes all other kinds of knowing and many activities of foreign language learners are primary interest to speak.

3.1 Teaching Speaking

Jeremy Harmer suggested on his book, there are some many classroom-speaking activities that are currently in use in communicative class.

a. Acting from Script

The teacher can ask the students to act out scenes from plats and or their course books, sometimes filming the result. Students will often act out dialogues they have written themselves. This frequently involves them in coming out to the front of the class.

b. Communication Games

Games which are design to provoke communication between students frequently depend on an information gap, so that one student has to talk to a partner in order to solve a puzzle, draw a picture (describe and draw), put things in the right order (describe and arrange), or find similarities and differences between pictures.

c. Discussion

One of the reason that discussions fail (when they do) is that students are reluctant to give an opinion in front of the whole class, particularly if they cannot think of anything to say and are not, anyway, confident of the language they might use to say it. Many students feel extremely exposed in discussion situations.

d. Prepared Talks

A popular kind of activity is the prepared talk where students make presentation on a topic of their own choice. Such talks are not designed for informal spontaneous conversation; because they are prepared, they are more writing-like than this. However, if possible, students should speak from notes than from a script.

e. Questionnaires

Questionnaires are useful because, by being pre-planned, they ensure that both questioner and respondent have something to say to each other. Depending upon how tightly designed they are, they may well encourage the natural use of certain repetitive language pattern-and thus be situated in the middle of our communication continuum.

f. Problem solving

The material is used in this technique giving the students to work in pairs or groups. They share their problem, opinion and feeling. In this case the teacher as the bridge to communicate among the participants. Then, the students give a question and answer each other. This communication will help the students practicing and expressing their ideas in spoken language.

g. Role-play

A popular way of the aspect of speaking activities is to use simulations and role plays. This is where students pretend that they are in a different situation, either as themselves or playing the role of someone is quite different. We could ask them to be guest at some parties and go there as different characters. They could, as themselves, pretend to be at an airport trying to check luggage, or either as themselves or another character take part in a television program. In all these cases the students are using language in order to participate in the activity rather than other way round! Some students find it very comfortable to use language in a simulated environment, playing the role of someone else –it allows them to experiment freely to be another people.

 

4. Methodology

This study aimed to get the understanding about the students’ activities in teaching speaking using role-play. The method used in this research is qualitative method to describe the process of teaching speaking using role-play.

 

B. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

1. The advantages of using role play technique

Based on the result of the data, it is proven that the students skill of speaking taught by using role play is better. It means that the use of role play in teaching speaking is quite effective. Another reason based on the students responses most students find that role play is enjoyable. This reason leads to better attention in learning and stimulate them to participate in role play activities, also role play is very helpful for the learners to improve their English speaking ability, it shown that the students skill of speaking have improvement after taught by using role play.

 

C. CONCLUSION

Based on the research, the writer concludes that:

From the result of the analysis of the research, it is proven that the students of speaking taught by using role play is better. This result has answered the research question that the use of role play in teaching speaking is quite effective.

a. The use of role play makes the speaking and learning activity more enjoyable and interesting. It is because role play helps the shy students by providing a mask, where students with difficulty in conversation are liberated. In addition, it is fun and most students will agree that enjoyment leads to better learning.

b. In role play, the world of the classroom is broadened to include the outside world. This offers a much wider range of language opportunities. So, the students can be anyone and in any situation they wish.

c. The use of role play makes the class more active and alive. Students are willing to participate without any forces from the teacher.

d. The use of role play makes the students more motivated in learning and easier to grasp the lesson.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brown, H. Douglas. 1994. Teaching by Principle an Interactive an Approach to Language Teaching. Oxford University Press.(x)

Brown and Yule.Teaching the Spoken language. (New York, Cambridge University Press 1999)(o)

Byrne, Donn.1986. Teaching Oral English: Longman Handbooks for English Teacher. Singapore: Longman Group.(o)

Crookal, D, and R.L. Oxford. 1990. Simulation, Gaming, Language Learning. New York: Newbury House. (x)

Doff, Adrian. 1988. Teach English: A Training Course for Teachers Trainer’s Handbooks. The British Council: Cambridge University Press Inc.(o)

Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. England. Pearson education limited Thomas Gordon. 1997. Teacher Effectiveness Training . Jakarta: Gramedia.(0)

House, Susan. 1997. An Introduction to Teaching English to Children. Richmond Publishing.(x)

Huebner, Theodore. 1960. Audio Visual Technique in Teaching foreign Language. New York. Cambridge University Press.(x)

Kathlen M. Bailey and Nunan. Practical English Language Teaching: Speaking,(New York, The McGraw Hill Companies, 2005).(x)

Krish, Pramela. July 2001. ”A Role Play Activity with Distance Learners in an English Language Classroom”, The Internet TESL Journal. Vol. VII, No. 7(o)

Ladousse, Gillian Porter. 1995. Role Play: Resources Book for the Teacher Series. New York.

Oxford University Press.(0)

Rohaniah, 2008. The Effeect of Communicative Approach Toward Students’ Speaking Ability, For Beginning Level of The First Year Students of MTs. NW Korleko in the School Year 2007-2008. Thesis S-1 STKIP Hamzanwadi at Selong. Unpublished. http://wirmanvalkinz.blogspot.com/2012/12/kumpulan-skripsi-bahasa-inggris-effect.html(0)

Tompkins, Patricia K. 1998. “Role Playing/Simulation”, The Internet TESL Journal. Vol.IV. No.8 (o)

22 The importance of translating

THE IMPORTANCE OF TRANSLATING AND INTERPRETING STUDIES TOWARDS STUDENT’S SPEAKING SKILL

Suhendar

STIBA IEC Jakarta

suhendar@stibaiecjakarta.ac.id

ABSTRACT

Principally, the objective of this research is to find out the result of achievement of student’s speaking skill through the performance of translation and interpreting studies. In view of that, this research constitutes one of teacher’s best endeavors to recognize the attainment of student’s speaking skill as the prerequisite for them to get a highly qualified competency for their carrier in the future. Hence, the objective of education for which the students pursue in the university can be accordingly achieved. The achievement of students speaking skill in the society is very important due to the fact that many kinds of world-class business opportunities need a qualification of competency-based speaking skill. The steps of improving the students speaking skill through translating and interpreting study are namely understanding linguistics, socio linguistics and psycho-linguistics and vocabulary as well.

 

A. INTRODUCTION

1. Background

Generally, in improving students speaking skill, the first things first, student must automatically learn the language itself as a means of communication. In this matter, to learn English language, hence, students should learn a wide range of English speaking competence elements which are among the other things English grammar, English vocabulary, English translation and English interpretation. Even though, students have a limited time to learn English in class, however they still have enough time to practice English outside of the class in order to be more familiar with English. There are so many things which constitute the best effort for students to have their English speaking skill improved, for example it is necessary for the students only to speak English during the class, and the teacher himself must be able to convince his students to be brave to speak English, it does not matter if they have very bad grammar for the first time. Just say whatever the students want to say. And the teacher must convince his students that making errors is a normal thing in learning. This way will raise students’ confidence to try to speak English. Furthermore, the students should have English conversation club that consists of their own classmates or their friends having the same interest in mastering their English speaking skill. They can share and talk about anything in English during that time. In this club, they can learn together. Students of university can correct each other without feeling embarrassed. English will become students’ routine activities.

In relation to which, the other ways of how to improve the students speaking skill is by joining English-supporting program like translating and interpreting studies. Translating and interpreting skills have a significant contribution on the mastery or knowhow of students’ speaking skill.

Fundamentally, every problem can be solved, likewise the problem of how to speak English fluently that students have. By forcing the students to study about language along with the elements thereof, students can obtain such an interesting experience to get the admiration and enjoyment of speaking English during the class or elsewhere in the campus environment. Interestingly, the creativity and innovation of how to find another way to enhance the students speaking skill is considerably required.

2. The Objective

The objective of this study is to find out the result of achievement of student’s speaking skill through the performance of translation and interpreting studies.

3. Theoretical Framework

3.1 Translation Definition

There are some translation definitions which are among the other things: (1) Nida and Taber (1982:12) say that translating consist in reproducing in receptor language the closest natural equivalence of a source-language message, firstly in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style; (2) Wills (1982:112) says that translation is a procedure which leads from a written source language text to an optimally equivalent target language text and requires the syntactic, semantic, stylistic, and text pragmatic comprehension by the translator of the original text; (3) Larson (1984:3) says that translation consists of translating the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of a second language by way of semantic structure. It is meaning which is being transferred and must be held constant. Only the firm changes; (4) Malinowski (1965:11-2) quoted by Tou (1999:3) says that translating must always be the re-creation of the original into something profoundly different. On the other hand. It is never substitution of word for word but in variably the translation of the whole context; (5) Steiner (1994:103) says that translation can be seen as (co) generation of text under specific constraint that is relative stability of some situational factors and, therefore, register, and classically, change of language and (context of) culture; (6) Rachmat Effendi (1922:6) says that translation is the process of transforming message from one language (source language) into another (target language) by reconstructing & editing sentences of the target language; (7) Baker (1992:5-6) says that the equivalence is adopted in this book for the sake of convenience-because most of translators are used to it rather than because it has any theoretical status. It is used here with the provision that although equivalence can always be obtained to some extent, it is influenced by a variety of linguistic and cultural factors and it is therefore always relative.

From all statements stated hereinabove, it can be known that there are some different definitions, however in practice, if they are deeply analysed, they actually complement each other.

3.2 The Nature of Translating and Interpreting Philosophy

Translating-interpreting activity worldwide, continue to be more and more important practices, especially in Indonesia as it is close to globalization and digitalization era. That is why a translation and interpreting Agent is now emerging to be a key position in high level of communication and, be more momentous in intermediating various type of business activities both among parties and individuals, especially in many developing countries beginning to go international, like Indonesia.

Academically, by understanding and mastering the scope of translating and interpreting skill the students will have another source to improve their speaking skill, the extent to which, they really understand and practice it as well as possible. The following is the scope of translation and interpreting.

 

 

Translation and Interpreting

Intra-language

Inter-language

Inter-semiotic

Visual

Inter-cultural

 

 

 

Figure 1. Scope of Translation and Interpreting

L I N G U I S T I CS

MESSAGE

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

SOCIOLINGUISTICS

Source: Cara Mudah Menulis dan Menterjemahkan written by: Rachmat Effendi P.

 

 

 

Figure 2: Triangle of Communication Infrastructures

Here is the Triangle of Communication infrastructure, comprising Linguistics or Standard English language based on the conventional agreement of linguist, Socio-Linguistics or non-standard English Language based on cultural Agreement or the comprehension of a certain community, and Psycho-Linguistics or Practice of Communication or Language understanding based on individual comprehension or ones logic rather than knowledge. And you will be unable to build communication properly or effectively without mastering or at least understanding all of these aspects.

Knowledge

Speaking Skill

Vocabulary Enrichment

Knowhow

Process

Translating and Interpreting skill

 

 

 

Figure 3. The flow of speaking skill derived from translating and interpreting competence.

Unquestionably, Indonesia is a big country with good reputation in international business sphere. In relation to which, most of leading Indonesian running business internationally nowadays tries to find intermediary parties including translator and/or interpreters in order to succeed their business. That is why understanding and mastering translation theory will meaningfully support the competence of speaking.

Why study Translation and interpreting because translation and interpreting studies can also support speaking competence of students while the students will also engage to:

· love and pleasure of working with languages;

· To explore and understand the details, nuances, and secrets of language and language transfer;

· To understand the workings and importance of translation, and the translator, in all international and intercultural exchanges;

· To learn about and develop skills in terminology and technologies of translation;

· To participate and work in increasing international inter-connectedness;

· To acquire professional skills in language transfer and get a job in the field;

· To work as a translator, or interpreter, or terminologist, or reviser, or bilingual, and even trilingual editor/writer – in many companies or institution either nationally or internationally

The process of translating and interpreting competence is simply described in the following sequence. Starting from the Source Language (SL) student should analyze what kinds of source language which should translate or interpret into target language, after which it transfers and restructures into Target Language (TL). For example if the student would like to translate or interpret “di tengah cerahnya mentari” he cannot translate “in the middle of the sun”, as it is impossible, instead of “On the sunny day”. Another example if the student would like to translate or interpret from Indonesian “Marilah kita sambut hari cerah ini dengan senyum ceria dan dada terbuka” student cannot translate into “Lets welcome this clear day with good smile and open chest” Instead of lets enjoy this sunny day with bright smile and spirit of life”. Furthermore, if the student would like to translate or interpret “Pemerintah belum melaksanakan program pengentasan kemiskinan” student cannot translate or interpret “ the Government does not perform poverty alleviation program” Instead of “the Government is not performing the poverty alleviation program”. Student should translate in the form of present progressive not in present tense, because if we translate or interpret in present tense it means there is not a good faith from the Government to perform poverty alleviation program. So that why student should translate or interpret in present progressive form, as it is only for temporary being.

 

Source Language (SL)

Target Language (TL)

 

 

 

 

X

Y

Restructuring

Analysis

Transfer

 

Source: Eugene Nida

3.3 The scope Interpreting

Interpreters convert spoken or sign language statements from one language to another. Interpreting involves listening to, understanding and memorizing content in the original ‘source’ language, then reproducing statements, questions and speeches in a different ‘target’ language. This is often done in only one direction, normally into the interpreter’s native language, but may be on a two-way basis.

Interpreters work in the following settings:

· business functions such as meetings, conferences, exhibitions and product launches;

· criminal justice proceedings, known as public service interpreting (PSI), including police and probation service interviews, court

· hearings, solicitor interviews, arbitration hearings and immigration tribunals;

· community-based events and assignments within the education, health and social services sectors.

3.4 Types of interpreter

Interpreting can be carried out in person, by telephone or via video conferencing and internet-based technologies.

There are several types of interpreting.

· Simultaneous interpretation (SI): working in a team at a conference or large meeting, the interpreter sits in a soundproof booth (there are separate booths for each conference language) and immediately converts what is being said, so listeners hear the interpretation through an earpiece while the speaker is still speaking. A variation of this is whispering or chuchotage, where the interpreter sits near one person or a small group and whispers the translation as the speaker carries on. Sign language interpreting is also usually simultaneous. Interpreters typically take turns of about 30 minutes as it demands such high levels of concentration.

· Consecutive interpretation (CI): more common in smaller meetings and discussions, the speaker will pause after each sentence or point and wait while the interpreter translates what is being said into the appropriate language.

· Liaison interpretation: also known as ad hoc and relay, this is a type of two-way interpreting, where the interpreter translates every few sentences while the speaker pauses. This is common in telephone interpreting as well as in legal and health situations. The interpreter supports people who are not fluent in the language to ensure their understanding.

· Sign language interpretation: interpreters convert spoken statements into sign language and vice versa. Interpreting from one sign language to another is another option.

3.5 Responsibilities

The following work activities are likely in any interpreting setting:

· assimilating speakers’ words quickly, including jargon and acronyms;

· building up specialist vocabulary banks;

· writing notes to aid memory;

· using microphones and headsets;

· preparing paperwork – considering agendas before meetings, or lectures and speeches when received in advance;

· using the internet to conduct research;

· organizing workload and liaising with internal departments, agencies and employers;

· working to a professional code of ethics covering confidentiality and impartiality.

3.6 The Nature of Speaking

1) The nature of Skill

Department of Health (2001:45) said skill is an ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills). Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997:179), Skill is the ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well.

Furthermore skill can be theoretically said as the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self-motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.

Based on the above theories it can be concluded that Skill is the ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well.

 

2) The nature of Speaking

The whole of human history is built upon communication. From the first story told in prehistoric times through the mass media of today, verbal communication has built the foundation of who we are, where we came from, and what we hope to become. Throughout time, many orators, philosophers, and educators have tried to capture the essence of human communication. Although a true understanding of the complexity of communication takes years of examination, it has tried to offer a brief highlight of some of the major contributors.

Speaking is a very important part in studying English. People need to speak in order to communicate one each other and make a good communication. When someone was born, he learns how to speak, and speaking can make him communicate or contact with other person. According to Yorkey (1990;4), speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously. 1) The teacher role is becoming important for students later. There are many keys to support speaking skill by listening cassette, watching TV, Watching film, practicing with foreigners, practicing with partners. In judging whether students are speaking in correct statements. There are two criteria which the teacher must take : -The students have to understand the meaning of words that they use and associate them into the objects of their represent. –The students have to pronounce the words properly in order to arise some perception and they understand each other. (Richard C Yorkey, 1990:4).

Speaking is a form of communication (Jone, 1989: 14). It means that speaking a kind of communication which is conveyed orally. It is certainly that the process of it involves two sides, the speaker and the listener who may function interchangeably. When the speaker produces utterances sent to the listener, he/she may function as a speaker. Otherwise, when the listener gets turn to give responses, he/she may function as a speaker. In short, may be said that speaking has the similar meaning to oral communication.

Brown says that conversations are collaborative activities as participants (speaker and listener) engage in a process of negotiation of meaning, (Brown, 2001:268). Meanwhile, Brown and Yule say that in the production of speech each speaker needs to speak individually and ideally. He needs someone to listen to this speaking and to respond to him, (Brown and Yule, 1997; 25)

In relation to building social relationship, everyone owns his goal for that reason. One may speak when he intends to discuss something. Harmer (2006: 46-7) states that there are. This implies that some reasons why people are involved in conversation. First they want to say something. This implies that when there is something to tell, they need to speak; otherwise, he will not speak. Second, they have communicative purpose. Third, they intend to select words. It means speakers in general have certain capacity to produce new and appropriate sentences.

Richards and Renandya (2002: 201) support Hammer’s views, which emphasize that one will make a social relationship through discussion forum. In this case, he will express his own ideas and persuade others or clarify information. Boardman (1979; 1) states that the language used by a speaker is to show how to ask information, to suggest, to prohibit, to express ideas, etc. In the context of English learning, students are encourage to be able to express themselves in target language, to overcome basic skills of interaction such as mutual greetings, expressions of thanks and apology, and to express his needs such as asking for information (Brown and Yule, 1988: 27).

Samovar and Mills (1972:62) further elaborate explanation provided by Finochiaro and Bonomo; that is, speaking as a two-way communication process between speaker and listener. They suggest that spoken communication does not only require speaking skills but also mutual understanding between speaker and listener. They define spoken communication as follows: 1) ‘communication involves more than one people, 2) communication aims at obtaining responses, 3) ideas and feeling are communication materials that need to be specially planned to achieve the intended objectives, 4) communication is a symbolical process, 5) communication is a real process in life that depends end how we adapt to our surrounding properly, 6) response of the receiver or listener is the test to effectiveness of communication activities. Lack of listener’s response means no communication exist.

Papalia (1983:15) states that speaking skills is not solely dependent on linguistics, competence but also on understanding of culture, strategic function and use of language in interactions in social contexts since success in acquiring communicative competence is dependent on how the components are integrated. For this, sauvignon (1983:21) suggest that communicative competence in the teaching of English needs to be develop through more provision of time for listening activities, providing students with the greatest possible opportunities to obtain responses, considering student’s grammatical mistakes as something natural in the teaching-learning process and performing activities within contexts that include their feelings and involvement as a whole.

M. Bygate in Spoisky (193:63) suggest that speaking skills have two integrated elements; that is, relative accuracy and relative fluency. Accuracy is one dimension related to clarity, appropriateness and correctness of certain message that are related to interlocutors and norms. Success of a message is influenced by selection, formulation and comprehensibility. This dimension covers use of grammar, pronunciation of vocabulary, selection of expression, discourse markers and register.

According to Jone speaking is a form of communication. It means that speaking is a kind of communication which conveyed orally. It is certainly that the process of it involves two sides, that speaker produces literacies sent to the listener, he/she may function as a speaker. Otherwise, when the listener, gets turn to give responses, he/she my function as a speaker in short , it may be said that speaking has the similar meaning to oral communication.

Jone adds that during communication what one says should be conveyed in and effective way. How one says has the same importance as what one says . The concept produced by a speaker should be delivered in a proper, polite and acceptable way in order that the listener feels comfortable to what the speaker says. An important concept will be less important it is delivered in impolite that may threaten Interlocutor’s face or the new may be different if a less important than concept is sent politely to the listener.

4. Methodology

This research use the library research to get the data about the student’s speaking skill through the performance of translation and interpreting studies.

 

B. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

If students want to be able to speak fluently in English, they need to be able pronounce us correctly, use appropriate stress and intonation patterns and speak in connected speech. Speakers of English – especially where it is a second language – will have to be able to speak in a range different genres and situations, and they will be have to be able to use a range of conversational and conversational-strategies. They will need to be able to survive in typical functional exchanges too.

Students are often reluctant to speak because they are shy and are not predisposed to expressing themselves in front of other people, especially when they are being asked to give personal information or opinions. Frequently, too, there is a worry about speaking badly and therefore losing face in front of their classmates. In such situation there are number things we can do to help. The teacher role is becoming important for student later. There are many keys to support speaking skill by listening cassette, watching TV, watching Film, practicing with foreigners, practicing with partner.

Speaking is a one of language skill in learning language. Speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously. People need to speak in order to communicate with the other people and make a good communication well. We have to learn how to speak, and speaking can make us communicate or contact with other person.

From the explanation, it is likely to have the same ideas on speaking reasons, namely the intention to deliver information to other people and to entertain and make other people feel happy as well as to express ideas. In English speaking situation, a student may speak with his classmate to convey some information and his ideas. A student also speaks when a lecture asks him some questions.

Considering some ideas above on the English speaking ability and necessity of using English, it is concluded that English speaking ability is one’s capacity of producing ideas orally to others through learning process expressed in English acceptable and appropriate ways to maintain social relationship.

Based on the above theories, it can be concluded that Speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously in order to communicate with the other people and make a good communication well.

Why a speaker creates communication with a listener, it is certainly said to have a basic assumption. Celce – Murcia and Olshtsin, who occupy oral interaction as speaking say that and any oral interaction the speaker want to communicate ideas, feelings, attitudes, and information to the hearer or wants to employ speech that relates to the situation. The main objective of the speaker is to go understood. And for the messages to be properly interpreted by the hearers. The two also use speech production referring to speaking explain that speech production is produced on-line and that is prototypically reciprocal (feedback ) in nature. The reciprocity develops during the on-going negotiation of meaning between the speaker and listener.

A similar view is presented by brown, who mentions speaking as conversation . He says that conversations are collaborative as participants (Speaker and Listener) engage in a process of negotiation of meaning . Meanwhile, Brown and Yule using the production of speech to refer to the term of speaking say that in the production of speech each speaker needs to speak individually and ideally . He needs someone to listen to his speaking and to respond to him.

Learning from the descriptions above, there are substance underlining them, i e : the term of speaking end definition of speaking . The term of speaking is used interchanged by with the term of “oral communication”, “oral interaction”, “conversation”, or “ Speech production”. Based on the evidence the researcher occupies the term of “ Oral communication”, “Oral interaction”, “conversation”, or “speech production as speaking. Men while, speaking may be defined as a collaborative activity between a speaker and listener is in which the two parties want to convey and negotiate thoughts, feelings or messages in a special reciprocal situation underlined by a mutual understanding.

Based on the explanation, it can be concluded that speaking skill is the ability of student’s communication which involve various skills to decide on when to speak; what form to use; which words are suitable in form and meaning; used of sequences of sounds, voice, tone and form; convincing one feels the need to speak properly in the right situation; and correct positioning of tongue and lips to produce linguistic sounds

C. CONCLUSION

From the matters mentioned hereinabove, the writer can conclude that students can improve their speaking skill from many kinds of ways, one of which is from understanding and mastering translating and interpreting studies. It is because in translating and interpreting studies students can learn intra-language, inter-language, inter-semiotic, intercultural and visual translation as well as to have experience in practicing simultaneous, consecutive, liaison and sign language interpretation. In view of that, student can get enough support and influence from such knowledge to enhance and develop their speaking skill.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Boardman, A. E. & Miller, S. & Schinnar, A. P., 1979. “Efficient employment of cohorts of labor in the U.S. economy: An illustration of a method,” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 13(6)

Brown, G. & Yule, G. 1997. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Brown, H Douglas.2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, NY: Addison Wesley Ltd.

Bygate, M. 1987. Speaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cangara, Hafied. 1998. Pengantar Ilmu Komunikasi. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.

Choliludin, 2006, The Technique of Making Idiomatic Translation, Bekasi, Kesaint Blanc – IKAPI

Dedy Mulyana, 2000. Ilmu Komunikasi, Pengantar. Bandung : Remaja Rosadakarya

Effendi P, Rachmat, 2008, Cara Mudah Menulis Menterjemahkan, Jakarta, Hapsa Publishing

Effendy, Onong Uchjan.1992. Komunikasi Teori dan Praktek, Bandung :Remaja Pengantar Ilmu Komunikasi, Jakarta : Grasindo.Rosdakarya.

Harmer J. 2002. How to teach vocabulary. England: Longman

Harmer, J. 1983. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman.

Harmer, Jeremy. 1998. How to Teach English, Longman: Addison Wesley Ltd.

Heinemann Dictionary.1989. teaching and learning vocabulary: an introduction .

Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or ecletic traits American Psychologist

Muhammad, Arny. 2005. Komunikasi Organisasi. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara

Read, John. 2000. Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Richard C Yorkey, Study skill for students of English as a second language. New York: MC. Grow Hill, Inc.

Richard C Yorkey. 1990. Study skill for students of English as a second language New York: MC. Grow Hill, Inc.

Richards Jack C, 1991. Interchange, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,

Richards, Jack C and Willy. A. Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, Jack C., and Renandya, Willy A., Eds. 2002. Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology Of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Samovar, L. A. and J. Mills 1972. Oral communication: Message and response. Dubuque, IA, Wm. C. Brown Publishers.

Wilss, Wolfram, 1999. Translation and Interpreting in the 20th Century, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins Publishing

 

19 The Motivations of Connie’s adultery

THE MOTIVATIONS OF CONNIE’S ADULTERY WITH MELLORS IN THE NOVEL LADY CHATTERLEY’S LOVER

Mukhlasul Fasikh

STIBA-IEC Jakarta

mukhlasul@stibaiecjakarta.ac.id

ABSTRACT

This objective of this research is to add to the students’ knowledge of the Connie’s motivation in committing adultery. In addition, the objectives are to find out the character of Connie, to give evidence and find out the motivation of Connie’s adultery with Mellors then to know the reaction of Clifford to students, teachers and people who want to analyze the Connie’s motivation in committing adultery. This research is a library research. The research was done through reading the novel and other sources related to the motivation of Connie’s adultery. The data was taken from books, dictionary, and internet. The researcher uses qualitative method to analyze the motivation of Connie in committing adultery. The novel tells about Connie as the female protagonist of the novel. At 23, she marries Clifford Chatterley. After a month’s honeymoon, Clifford is sent to war, and returns paralyzed from the waist down and become impotent. After that, he becomes a successful writer. Into the void of Connie’s life comes Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper on Clifford’s estate. Connie feels curiously drawn to him. After several meetings him, they meet by chance at a hut in the forest. And they have sex more than twice. This time, Connie begins to adore Mellors. She is proud to believe that she is bearing Mellors’ child. Adultery means he or she physically engages in sexual acts with someone who is not his or her spouse. They commit adultery due to several motivations such as the weaknesses of their partner, chances to meet their paramour that grow them in love. Understanding of the people’s motivation in committing adultery is very important before judging them unpleasantly.

A. INTRODUCTION

1. Background

Why is literature read by many people? The basic reason for reading literature is for pleasure. Many readers read literature mostly because they enjoy it. A literature entertains people by showing the beauty and giving the value to the life or giving the freedom to imaginative world (Melani Budianta: 2003). Then according to Jones (1968) literature is also simply another way we can experience the world around us through our imagination.

Literature can be defined as a work that tells about the characters which sometimes can be found in someone’s real life. It also gives not only entertainment and information, but it also shows the readers how to live in this world properly.

A novel has some elements of structure to help the readers analyze it. They are plot, characterization, situation and theme, conflicts and point of view. Theme is one of the most basic elements of a novel. And the writer would like to analyze it in this novel in depth. The title of this novel is Lady Chatterley’s Lover written by Lawrence. The writer decided to work on this novel because it is one of the controversial novels in modernism period as a pornography work.

These days, adultery is hardly surprising. The theme of story about adultery, even fiction or non fiction, is easily found in the books and movies. This is the fact of adultery has been part of the human existence for as long as there has been marriage. People who commit adultery have many different motivations. Even adultery brings the great problems, there are many people commit adultery. The writer is interested in digging much information related to the motivations of Connie’s adultery with Mellors which can be seen during his activity, self-concept and thought as described explicitly in the novel.

Lady Chatterley’s Lover begins by introducing Connie Reid, the female protagonist of the novel. She was raised as a cultured bohemian of the upper-middle class in 1917. At 23, she marries Clifford Chatterley. After a month’s honeymoon, he is sent to war, and returns paralyzed from the waist down, impotent. After the war, Clifford becomes a successful writer. Connie feels isolated; she commits adultery with Michaelis in his visit to Clifford. A nurse, Mrs. Bolton, is hired to take care of Clifford

Into the void of Connie’s life comes Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper on Clifford’s estate. Connie feels curiously drawn to him. After several chance meetings, Mellors tries to avoid and make distance. They meet by a chance at a hut in the forest. They have sex. It happens on several occasions, but Connie still feels a distance between them. One day, Connie and Mellors meet by coincidence in the woods, and they have sex on the forest floor. This time, Connie gets something nice and different from Mellors. She begins to adore Mellors. She is proud to believe that she is pregnant with Mellors’ child. The motivations of Connie in committing adultery to Mellors will be discussed more in this thesis. So the writer will discuss deeply about Connie’s motivation in committing adultery.

2. The Objectives

Based on the problem above, the objectives of this study are:

1) To find out the Connie’s characterization

2) To identify how often Connie commits adultery.

3) To get the reasons that Connie commits adultery with Mellors.

4) To elaborate the reaction of Connie’s husband about her adultery.

 

3. Theoretical Framework

3.1 Character

3.1.1 Definition of Character

A character is the focus of much existing genre theory. This usually involves much fine-drawn moral analysis, since character is the personal form of values (Fowler: 1982). And then, according to Obstfeld (2002) it can be defined as any person, persona, identity, or entity that exists in work of art. Along with plot setting theme and style, character is considered one of the fundamental components of fiction.

Richard (1995:127) stated that Character is someone in literary work that has some sort of identity, an identity which is made up by appearance, conversation, action, and named possibly thought going on in the head. It is concluded that the character is an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction. Such as in prose, play or film or story, and especially Novel which has a big number of character.

3.1.2 Kinds of Characters

  1. Flat character

According to Ginny (2009), A flat character is a minor character in a work of fiction that does not undergo substantial change or growth in the course of a story. Some characters are flat, stereotypical: the handsome prince, the heroic soldier, the lovely princess, the evil counselor. A flat character is constructed around single idea or quality (Tormina:2005).

  1. Round character

Strong characters are rounded; they exhibit the full range of human emotions and reactions to people and events. They have histories and more than one possible future. They have hopes and fears.

  1. Dynamic character

In a story, a dynamic character is someone who undergoes an important, internal change because of the action in the plot. Ebenezer Scrooge, from Charles Dickens’s A Christmas Carol, is a classic example. When we first meet him, he is mean, bitter, and avaricious. Through his experiences with the three ghosts, he becomes generous, kind, and beloved (Cliffs Notes: 2000).

  1. Static character

A static character is one whose personality doesn’t change throughout the events in the story’s plot. Dickens, again, is the source of an example in Joe Gargery, from Great Expectations. Joe remains faithful, honorable, and loyal despite being robbed by a convict and treated poorly by his wife and nephew.

  1. Protagonist

Protagonist is the main character in a story, novel, drama or other literary work. Then it is added that protagonist is the mayor or central character of the plot (James H Pickering and Jeffrey D. Hoeper,1995:24).

  1. Antagonist

The antagonist in a work of fiction is the character who opposes the hero or protagonist. Then protagonist is the character against whom the protagonist struggles or commends. The action of story arises from conflict between the antagonist and the protagonist.

3.2 Adultery

3.2.1 Definition of adultery

What is adultery? There are two definitions to it. It is divided based on the act and the thought. They are:

a. The act; a married person commits adultery if he or she physically engages in sexual acts with someone who is not his or her spouse.

b. The thought; A married person commits adultery if he or she has a lustful desire for someone other than his or her spouse.

Adultery is the affair, which has sexual involvement with someone else that is kept secret from the spouse (Jack Dominian, 1995:163). It can be concluded that adultery is a crime and sexual relations outside of marriage, and adultery may result in pregnancy, and the laws of the country that cover termination of a pregnancy and of child support come into play.

3.2.2 Cause of adultery

A person commits adultery when there’s something that triggers them to act, and defy their own vows that were made during their wedding day. A lot of possible reasons can cause adultery. A simple example would be physical attractions.

Dr. Weil (2002) has a three part theory to help explain the occurrence of adultery:

a. Adultery is most often the result of an inherited emotional behavior pattern, rather than a desire to be unfaithful.

b. Many men commit adultery because of psychological distress that comes from confrontation or conflict in their relationship.

c. Some people who have experienced severe stress, loss or separation from one or both of their parents at an early age often suffer an impact on their hormones that affects adult relationships.

 

A woman commits infidelity when she thinks that they have found the perfect man to become a part her life. A man that she can’t have because she’s tied to someone else, which in most cases, the husband or partner has become less attractive and appealing for some reason that even she is sometimes unsure of him.

When a woman generates affairs with a man, she may have several reasons that made her do such a thing. Comparing the husband to the new man in her life one that can provide what she feels she is now missing. Things such as a lust for sex, money, power, are pretty self-explanatory. These reasons are pretty much the same as why men have affairs, financial problems, trust and faithfulness issues, love and such, women goes through the same type of things.

3.3 Motivation

3.5.1 Definition of motivation

When many people want to do some activites whether pleasure activites or unplesure activities, they have some chances or motivations to do them. And the goal motivates the doers do what they want to do spiritly and full of power. Motivate is making somebody want to do some thing, especially something that involves hard work and effort (A.S. Hornby, 2005:995) . Motivation gets us going; it gives us energy, directs us to toward our goals and sustains us through the task we undertake (Wilma Vialle,Pauline Lysaght,Irina Verenikina. 2005:156) .

Motivation is a reason or reasons behind a character’s action (Michael J Cummings: 2009). Besides, motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need. Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it (Shah.Ken and Prof. Param J. Shah: 2010).

3.5.2 Type of motivation

There are two main broad categories of motivation; intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.

a. Intrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation comes from within (Donna Ambler Peters, Tad McKeon. 1998). It comes from the personal enjoyment and educational achievement that we derive from doing that particular thing. For example for people who love music, their motivation to practice the instrument, attend classes, etc. is intrinsic motivation.

On the flip side, the weakness of intrinsic motivation is that it is more difficult to obtain. It is not always easy to have intrinsic motivation for the thing that you wish to have motivation for. Often times, having intrinsic motivation depends heavily on an individual’s personal interests and preference

b. Extrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation is doing something for someone else. Then, extrinsic motivation is motivation that comes from things or factors that are outside the individual.

Extrinsic motivation on the other hand, is easier to engineer. We can use a combination of rewards, pleasure, pain and fear to create motivation for ourselves and others. In addition to that, we can further enhance the effect of extrinsic motivation by effectively using either moving toward or moving away motivation. Extrinsic motivation can be further categorized into moving towards motivation and moving away motivation.

4. Methodology

The writer uses qualitative research to analyze Lady Chatterley’s Lover novel. The type of research has been chosen since it is suitable for analyzing novel. Descriptive research design is a scientific method which involves observing and describing the behavior of a subject without influencing it in any way (L.R. Gay and Peter Airasian. 2000).

 

B. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

1. Connie’s adultery with Mellor

1.1 The Characterization of Connie

 

A character who is categorized as protagonist in Lady Chatterley’s Lover is Connie. She has a husband named Clifford Chatterley. She loves her very much but since she meets Mellors, a gamekeeper of Clifford in the woods, her love to Clifford changes gradually until she has hatred to Clifford. As soon as she doesn’t like Clifford, she becomes totally in love with Mellors.

From the first Chapter, the affection and attention of Connie to Clifford is shown very romantically. It looks like a true love and everlasting married. But, in the fifth chapter, she meets Mellors in the woods after talking about having child with her beloved husband. Since she meets Mellors in the woods, Connie feels that there is a strong inner beauty in Mellors. She then often likes to spend time and breathe the fresh air to the woods. She also often meets Mellors until they commit adultery in the hut and love each other.

Classification of Connie’s character is a round character. It is described in detail during the love making with Clifford and Mellors in her life. She also has hopes and fears in her love to Mellors.

Another classification is that Connie belongs to dynamic character because she has significant changes in her behavior and character. The changes occur when she has met and committed adultery with Mellors. At the first meeting with Mellors, it does not bring the difference behavior of Connie. She still loves Clifford even though he is paralyzed and rendered impotent. But, the second trigger of her characterization change is that she commits adultery in hut with Mellors.

It is also important to note that Connie is an extremely careful. First, she loves and takes care of her husband with full of affection and attention, even after he is shipped home paralyzed and impotent. She treats him without any demand. Connie feels pity. Connie tries to understand the condition of Clifford. In the novel, it is written that:

………………… Then, he was pronounced a cure, and could return to life again, with the lower half o his body, from the hips down, paralyzed for ever. (P. 1/I )

Then, Connie is a dramatic character. The writer gets the Connie’s dramatic characterization from what Connie says about her self in the letter. It is written that she is also impatient and selfish person.

Dear Clifford, I am afraid what you foresaw has happened. I am really in love with another man, and do hope you will divorce me……… I am not really the right for you. I am too impatient and selfish, I suppose. ………. so do forgive me and get rid of me. (p. 306/XIX )

The last characterization is that Connie is a narcissistic person because she often watches her body naked in front of the mirrors.

When Connie went up to her bedroom, she did what she had not done for long time: took of all her clothes, and look at herself naked in the huge mirror. She didn’t know what she looking for, or at, very definitely, yet she moved the lamp till it shone full of her. (P. 71/VII)

It indicates that she has done it when she was young. She does it because she feels lonely.

 

 

1.2 The Connie’s Adultery with Mellors

There are several times in Connie’s meeting with Mellors before they commit adultery in woods. After those meetings, they commit adultery more than three times and their loves grow gradually. Here are the sequences of the Connie’s meeting with Mellors: The first meeting happens in the fifth chapter. After Connie and Clifford talk about talk about their life together. Connie is introduced by Clifford in the hut with Mellors.

“Connie, this is the new gamekeeper, Mellors. You haven’t spoken to her lady ship yet, Mellors?”

“No, Sir” came the ready neutral words. (p. 46/V )

 

The second meeting is written in chapter six. The meeting between Connie and Mellors is in the hut coincidently. Connie hears a child crying then she gets closer to the sounds. She meets Mellors getting angry to his child. She asks to Mellors about the reason of this matter.

“What is the matter? Why is she crying?” demanded Constance, peremptory but a little breathless. (p. 59/VI )

The third meeting still takes place in chapter six. In this meeting, Connie meets Mellors in his Cottage. Connie gets message from Clifford to send a message to Mellors. Near the cottage, Connie looks Mellors soaping his body.

The forth meeting is written in Chapter eight. When she goes to woods, she hears someone hammering something. Then she walks on listening and finds Mellors that is hammering the cage for the young chicks.

The fifth meeting is in chapter eight. In this chapter, Connie gets together again in the hut but it is different from the previous meeting. She meets Mellors when Connie takes shelter in the hut from the rain.

The last meeting before the adultery is written in chapter ten. This meeting is gone on the hut again. In that time, Mellors wants to give key to Connie because she looks unhappy in the previous meeting.

Afterwards, she gets the key from Mellors, she almost everyday goes to the hut to get her cheerfulness.

In chapter ten, Connie also starts committing adultery with Mellors in the hut. The first adultery begins after the sixth meeting. This is the preliminary point of Connie in getting great affection since she gets married with Clifford. It starts when Connie feels lonely in her life. It makes Connie crying in front of Mellors.

Mellors feels pity. He tries to make her become calm and gives more attentions to her.

Then, Mellors invites her to the hut because he knows that Connie’s heart is really broken.

Connie goes to the hut together with Mellors. In the hut, they commit adultery for the first time.

The second adultery also takes place in chapter ten. In this adultery, they do it in the hut in the evening in the drizzle time. She enters the hut with the key that she gets from Mellolrs. Connie offers herself and she really wants to have sex again.

The fourth adultery between Connie and Mellors is in chapter fourteen. This chapter starts when Connie walks to the woods gate to meet Mellors. She waited for Mellors there. She gets outs from her bedroom silently and unseen. This adultery takes place in the Mellors cottage. They make promise to live together because of love.

It is clearly seen that Connie and Mellors want to live together. Both Connie and Mellors have found their love growing gradually.

The next adultery, that is the fifth one, is in chapter fifteen. This adultery is quite strange because they commit adultery under the heavy rain on the ground floor of woods. It makes all their hair and naked body become wet.

Then, Mellors follows Connie’s step to have rain together out side. They run after each other and commit adultery outside the hut.

The sixth adultery of Connie and Mellors is in chapter sixteen. It happens at Mellors’ cottage in the evening. Connie drops by Mellors cottage before she continues her trip to Venice, Italia by Hilda’s car. She stays just only one night. In this time, Mellors knows Connie’s sister or the first time. In the next morning Hilda will pick her up to go to Venice, Italy.

The last adultery in this novel between Connie and Mellors is in chapter eighteen. London is a city where they have adultery. Mellors sends a letter to Connie’s room in the hotel Hartland. Mellors waits for Connie outside the golden Cock in Adam street at seven.

 

1.3 The motivations of Connie’s adultery with Mellors

The paralyzed of Clifford from the waist down is one of the triggers in Connie’s adultery with Mellors that is written in the first chapter. The extrinsic motivation here creates the intrinsic motivation in Connie’s life. Connie feels the physical injustice toward her that makes lonely and there is no hope again if she still continues her life with Clifford. Clifford will not be able to touch Connie with her affection like the other husbands that treat their wives appropriately.

The next motivation of Connie and Mellors is that there are a lot of chances to meet each others. It is classified as extrinsic motivation. In Lady Chatterley’s Lover, the writer finds more than five meetings before they commit adultery.

Love is gradually grown between them. It creates strong feeling in Connie and Mellors to commit adultery. This motivation belongs to extrinsic motivation that is categorized into moving toward motivation because Connie tries to achieve their cheerfulness with mellors. Connie feels comfort and gets happiness more when she is beside Mellors.

Then, Mellors invites her to the hut because he knows that Connie’s heart is really broken. Those words really touch the Connie’s heart.

Connie goes to hut together with Mellors. In the hut, they commit adultery for the first time. Mellors shows his care to Connie. He wants to make Connie feel comfortable beside him.

The strange motivation is that the writer gets is the Clifford’s permission to Connie in having sex with other man getting the child. Getting allowance from her husband to commit adultery is kind of extrinsic motivation.. And Clifford ever allows her to make love with other man in same degrees of aristocrat not from low level social status.

Clifford still believes her natural instinct. Then Connie meets Mellors in the hut in chapter five. After several meeting, Connie falls in love to Mellors, a man who is not from aristocrat, working as gamekeeper in Clifford’s estate. Connie is afraid that Clifford will be angry with her as he has sex with a man who is from low social status.

Clifford wants his child better than him physically. He wants his child carry on the business later as inheritor.

 

1.4 The Reaction of Clifford

The first Clifford’s reaction after he hears about the adultery of Connie with Mellors is that he feels shock to hear that information. He gets angry with both Connie and Mellors. Clifford hears that scandals of his wife from the citizen.

The next reaction from Clifford is that he fires Mellors because he hears that the scandal of Mellors is with Connie. Mellors sends letters to Connie and informs that he has been fired by Clifford as a gamekeeper in his estate.

Connie keeps sending letters to Clifford in the beginning chapter nineteen. It tells that Connie asks to be divorced by Clifford because she has another man that she loves to.

This letter makes Clifford sad and he absolutely refuses about what Connie says. Then Clifford asks Connie to go home from London to admit her adultery with Mellors face to face.

He also asks Connie to go to Wragby by sending letter to London. Then Connie answers the letter and she still doesn’t want to go to Wragby But Clifford forces Connie to come.

Finally Connie comes to Wragby and she is accompanied by Hilda. At the beginning Connie tries to convince that her adultery just only with Duncan Forbes not with Mellors. Clifford still doesn’t believe to Connie about her love with Duncan Forbes. After several minutes, Connie tells the truth to Cilliford that Mellors is her love.

 

 

C. CONCLUSION

Committing adultery is one of the problems that create divorced in some people’s married life. They commit adultery because they have their own motivations. The same case of adultery is found in Lady Chatterley’s Lover. Based on the discussion, the motivations of Connie’s adultery with Mellors can be found even with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. This adultery generates a divorce because their love gradually becomes visible in their heart. First, the writer finds the motivation of adultery in the first chapter, such as the paralyzed of Clifford from the waist down and the Clifford’s impotent. Then it is defined from the allowance of Clifford for Connie to have a child from another man.

Connie’s adultery with Mellors has not only one motivation but also has more than two motivations. The other motivations in Connie’s adultery between Mellors are such as there are a lot of chances to meet each others, Love gradually grows between them, and Clifford gives permission to Connie in having sex with other man for getting the child. From those motivations above, they trigger Connie to commit adultery. This adultery emerges the reaction of Clifford as a legal husband of Connie. He feels shocked because Connie has relationship with a person who is a gamekeeper.

Getting angry, feeling sad and shocked, and firing Mellors as gamekeeper in his estate are the reaction of Clifford after getting information about Connie’s scandal with Mellors. Then he does not want to fulfill Connie’s demand for divorcing her. The aim of a writer is to stimulate these emotions of a reader to get new experience from it. The findings of evidences and analysis that is made by the writer makes the readers know more and understand clearly about Connie’s adultery. It can be concluded that Connie’s adultery with Mellors has more than one motivation.

 

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