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PIMPINAN DAN DOSEN STIBA-IEC JAKARTA
Dr. Sugiarto Sutomo, M.A.
Bejo Sutrisno, M.Pd.
Suhendar, S.S., M.Pd.
Mangantar Sitohang, M.Pd.
Yuesi Setyorini, S.E., M.Pd.
Istiwarni Diah, S.S.,M.Pd
Dr. Sri Arfani, M.Pd.
Mohamad Mansur, M.Pd
Joko Irianto, M.Pd.
Mukhlasul Fasikh, S.S.,M.Pd.
Abdul Muhid Murthadho, M.Pd.
Syarief Hidayatullah, M.Hum.
Dr. Somariah Fitriani, M.Pd.
Putri Basmallah, M.Hum.
THE EFFECT OF LEARNING MEDIA AND LEARNING STYLE TOWARD ENGLISH STUDYING RESULT
(Experiment On Junior High Schools’ Students In Kabupaten Bekasi)
Abdul Muhid Murtadho
Lecturer of STIBA IEC Jakarta
This research was held to check out the effect of learning media and learning style toward English studying result for the second grade students of the Junior High School. This Research was held at SMP 5 Setu – Bekasi and SMP 12 Tambun – Bekasi. The writer took 165 students as sample for research. The research instrument is the questionnaire of Learning Style and the teaching prosess by using different Learning Media (Multimedia Based and Conventional Based). The methodolgy used by the writer is survey dan experiment which is used treatment anylisi method by level. The type of testing used is Anova Dua Arah. From this research writer found that there is a significant correlation between Learning Media toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtanined of Fo = 11,070 and Sig. = 0,000 < 0,05. There is a significant correlation between Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtanined of Fo = 8,982 dan Sig. = 0,000 < 0,05. There is not any significant interaction effect between Learning Media and Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtanined of Fo = 0,043 dan Sig. = 0,958 > 0,05.
Key Words : Learning Media, Learning Style, English studying Result, Two Ways Anova
English ability is developed in four aspects. These skills include mastery of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Unfortunately the results of studtents’ English learning result in Indonesia is still low, especially in Junior High School. Therefore, cooperation is needed from some parties to improve the learning achievement of English as an effort to achieve the goals of national education.
Based on direct observation in the field, the result of learning English in the Secondary Junir High School Students in Bekasi Regency is still low, the results achieved are still below the Minimum Passing Criteria (KKM) established by the school. Learning outcomes are the results of their formative test exams. Learning media is one means of supporting the teaching and learning process, improving the effectiveness of teaching and learning, and increasing the motivation and concentration learners in learning.
An understanding of the learning styles of each individual in the classroom, will show how appropriate treatment is knowing each student needs. Individuals can be different with visual, auditorial, kinestetic / somastis modalities have different characteristics in their learning styles. The research was conducted on grade VIII students of SMP Negeri in Bekasi Regency.
1. The Effect of learning media on English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.2. The Effect of learning styles on English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.3. The Interaction of learning media and learning style toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.
- 3. Theoretical Framework
3.1. Learning Media
Arsyad (2007: 3) says the word media comes from the Latin word “medius” which literally means ‘middle’, ‘intermediary’ or ‘introduction’. Gerlach & Ely (1971) says that the media when understood in broad outline is human, material, or event that builds conditions that enable students to acquire knowledge, skills, or attitudes.Meanwhile, Gagne and Briggs (1975) in Arsyad (implicitly) said that instructional media includes tools that are physically used to convey the content of teaching materials. Thus it can be concluded that the learning media is anything that can be used to channel the message from the sender to the receiver so that it can aroused the students’ thoughts, feelings, attention and interests in such a way that the learning process takes place. Media is an integral part of the educational process of learning in school so that becomes a component that must be mastered by professional teachers.
3.2. Learning Style
Knowing Learning styles is one way to find out that the learning process will be easy and fun. Implementation of learning styles in teaching and learning process is very necessary because it is closely related to the environment and learning atmosphere to optimize the learning activities of students who are seen as reliable indicators assess the effectiveness of teaching.Experts state the learning style in various senses. According to Hamzah B. Uno (2010: 180) learning style shows the fastest and best way for an individual to absorb information from outside himself. Suparman (2010: 63) says Learning styles are the way one tends to be chosen to receive information. In addition Sarasin also states that learning styles are specific behavior patterns in receiving new information and developing new skills, as well as the process of storing new information or skills. Meanwhile, according to DePorter & Hernacki, “learning style is a combination of how it absorbs, and then organizes and processes information. From the various descriptions of the above descriptions, it can be concluded that learning styles are learning habits and ways in which individuals choose to master a learning process.
- Type of Learning Style
Visual-auditory-kinesthetic learning style is often called the learning style of VAK. Suparman (2010: 64), describes the characteristics of visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles and teacher strategies to facilitate the teaching and learning process. The description is as follows: 1) Visual StyleThis learning style is generally referred to as an observational learning style. This learning style relies heavily on the sense of sight (eye) in the learning process. Children of this type are attracted to colors, shapes, and life images. 2) AuditoryThis learning style is usually referred to as a listener. Children who have this learning style generally maximize the use of the senses of the listener (ear) in the process of capturing and absorbing information. Generally they pose more interest in voices and words.3) KinestheticThis style of learning is usually referred to as the driving force. This is because students with this learning style always use and use the limbs in the learning process or in an effort to understand something.
3.3. Studying Result
Studying Result are the ultimate goal of learning activities in schools. Studying Result are closely related to learning objectives and processes. It is mentioned Nana Sudjana (2005) that learning and teaching as a process contains three distinguishable elements, namely instructional (instructional), teaching (learning) process, and studying Result
The method used in this research is survey and experiment with method of treatment analysis by level. Type of test used is Two Ways Anova. Experiments were conducted on two groups / samples in which each group was treated with different treatments. The first group was taught using multimedia-based learning media, while the second group was taught using conventional learning media. Each group is subdivided into three according to student learning style, that is group having visual, auditorial, and kinesthetic learning style.
Research design is described as follow :
Table 4.1. Research Design
Table 4.2 Number of School Students Members of Affordable Population
|No||School Name||Location||Number of students|
|1||SMP Negeri 5 Setu||Setu, Kab.Bekasi||431|
|2||SMP Negeri 12 Tambun||Tambun Selatan, Kab Bekasi||428|
Table 4.3 Result of Sample selection
|No||School Name||Experiment Class||Number of students||Control
|Number of students|
|1||SMP Negeri 5 Setu||Kelas VIIIa||42||Kelas VIIIb||41|
|2||SMP Negeri 12 Tambun||Kelas VIIIa||43||Kelas VIIIb||40|
Table 3.5. Number of Members for Each Group
|Level||Treatment : Learning Media (A)|
|Learning Style (B)||Multimedia based (A1)||Conventional based (A2)|
|Visual (B1)||SMPN 5 Setu||: 10 respondent||SMPN 5 Setu||: 10 respondent|
|SMPN 12 Tambun||: 10 respondent||SMPN 12 Tambun||: 10 respondent|
|Auditory (B2)||SMPN 5 Setu||: 10 respondent||SMPN 5 Setu||: 10 respondent|
|SMPN 12 Tambun||: 10 respondent||SMPN 12 Tambun||: 10 respondent|
|Kinesthetic (B3)||SMPN 5 Setu||: 10 respondent||SMPN 5 Setu||: 10 respondent|
|SMPN 12 Tambun||: 10 respondent||SMPN 12 Tambun||: 10 respondent|
The steps for testing or verifying the hypothesis are as follows:a. Create a table for the grouping of data required for testing Two-Way Anova.Table 3.6. Two Ways Anova Design
Learning Style (B)
|Treatment : Learning Media (A)||YB|
|Multimedia (A1)||Konvetional (A2)|
- Create descriptive statistic tTable for each data set. This descriptive statistic table contains the prices for each of the elements required in ANOVA as follows:
Table 3.7. Descriptive statistic table for Two Ways Anova
c. Create a two-way ANOVA summary table
- Deciding db, JK > RJK, Fh dan Ft
In practice, SPSS 17.00 program assistance will be used for testing the hypothesis, ie, by testing of Two Way Anova. In the Two-Way Anova test with the SPSS, the output of interest is the Sig column value in the Tests of Between Subjects Effects table as shown in Table 3.8
Table 3.8 Result test of Two Ways Anova
Tests of Between Subjects Effects
Dependent Variabel : English Studying Result
|Source||Type III Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Squares||F||Sig|
|Metode_Pembelajaran * Gaya Belajar||……….||……….||……….||……….||……….|
- RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Data Summary of Research Results
Table 4.1. Statistic Deskriptif Summary
|Dependent Variable: English Studying Result|
|Learning Media||Learning Style||Mean||Std. Deviation||N|
Table 4.2. Statistical Description by Research Design
a. Test of Data Analysis Requirements Prior to the hypothesis testing, firstly testing the requirements analysis that includes testing the normality and homogeneity.
- Normality test
Table 4.3. Data of Normality test
|One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test|
|Hasil Belajar Bahasa Inggris|
|Most Extreme Differences||Absolute||.164|
|Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)||.078|
|a. Test distribution is Normal.|
|b. Calculated from data.|
- Homogenity test
Table 4.4. Data of Homogenity test
|Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variancesa|
|Dependent Variable: English Studying Result|
|Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups.|
|a. Design: Intercept + A + B + A * B|
3) Hypothesis Testing Table 4.5. Research of Hypothesis Testing
|Tests of Between-Subjects Effects|
|Dependent Variable: Hasil Belajar Bahasa Inggris|
|Source||Type III Sum of Squares||df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|A * B||5.833||2||2.917||.043||.958|
|a. R Squared = .407 (Adjusted R Squared = .352)|
Based on the above data, the proposed research hypothesis can beanswered. The explanation of the above table is as follows:a. First Hypothesis : There is a significant correlation between LearningMedia toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.b. Second Hypothesis : There is a significant correlation between Learning Style toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.c. Third Hypothesis : There is not any significant interaction effect between Learning Media and Learning Style toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.
Based on the results of hypothesis testing research, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- There is a significant correlation between Learning Media toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtained of Fo = 11,070 and = 0,000 < 0,05.
- There is a significant correlation between Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtained of Fo = 8,982 dan Sig. = 0,000 < 0,05.
- There is not any significant interaction effect between Learning Media and Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtained of Fo = 0,043 dan Sig. = 0,958 > 0,05
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THE MORAL VALUES IN “CHICKEN RUN” MOVIE
This thesis covers an analysis of movie. Moral value is one of the main aspects that emerges in the movie. The moral value in the movie makes an example in human’s life in reality. The importance of moral values in our lives is how to learn the life’s experience and the life will go on. Each person must have moral values respectively and should not give up if he or she gets a variety of obstacles and barriers in life. Everybody must still strive in a positive way in order to pursue their dreams and can become a reality and help each other in achieving dreams. The writer analyzed this movie in moral values by using qualitative research. This thesis describes about moral values which are found in this movie and about the effort of main characters to reach dream. Based on the analysis, the writer hopes everyone should still try to reach the dream. To elaborate the findings, the writer describes formative analysis by capturing the dialogue using detailed data. Other findings related to the study are stated.
Keywords: moral value, qualitative, movie
An entertaining of cartoon movie makes the writer desires to analyze the cartoon movie. There are some factors that influence the writers to choose the cartoon movie. Firstly, cartoon movie makes the writers feel entertained and curious how the storyline is. Secondly, the writers like something funny, it means that the writers prefer to watch cartoon movie because it shows 3D animation. Thirdly, cartoon movie can make the writers’ mind relaxed and lose the boredom. The last one is that cartoon movie gives some positive feedback and moral message that causes cartoon movie can be watched by all ages.
Based on the writers’ reason above, the writers take “Chicken Run” movie as the source of data for the research. It is directed by Peter Lord and Nick Park. “Chicken Run” Movie belongs to a cartoon movie as a genre. The cinema movie has been released in the year of 2000. This movie tells about a hen that is named Ginger. Ginger lives on the chicken farm of Mr. and Mrs. Tweedy. She is very restless and tries to escape from the chicken of farm. Ginger does in various ways and she tries to persuade her friends to escape together. However, she always fails. Ginger never gives up, she makes a plan for exit. Ginger wants to see view outside of the cage, precisely on a hill across from the farm. When she knows that she and her friends will be made chicken pie. Immediately, she tells it to all her friends, so all her friends feel afraid of it. Finally, she and all her friends make a plan. The plan is that they make a plane from their cage.
The struggle of the main character is one of reasons why the writers will discuss about the figure of main character. The struggling of the main character is shown about how the main character survives and what the efforts she does. Audiences can take some moral messages from the struggle and effort of the main character.
After analyzing the main character, the writers can learn and find out the moral values that are contained in this movie. The moral values in this movie can be learned by the same ways of the struggle and effort of main character. It is done by main character and resulting some positive and negative effect of life that are taken from this movie.
Those are the writers’ reason to take “Chicken Run” Movie as the data of this thesis. It covers the analysis of main character and other literature elements that are related to the analysis the movie. There are four main characters found in this movie. Then, there are two main characters that stand out. So, the writer gets the title for this thesis is “The Moral Values in “Chicken Run” Movie (A content analysis of “Chicken Run” Directed by Peter Lord and Nick Park”.)
Based on the limitation problems above, the writers decide some objectives of the study as follows; (1) To find out the moral values of the movie; (2) To figure out the moral values that contained in this movie; (3) To describe the effort of the main character in this movie.
- Theoretical Frmework
3.1. Definition of Morality
According to Keraf (1990:20), morality is acts as a regulator and instructions for humans to believe in order to be categorized as a good human being and can avoid bad behavior. Human can be said to be immoral if he does not behave in accordance with the prevailing morality. Morality is the distinction between right and wrong. It is the determination of what should be done and what should not be done
.Kelley (1992:56) stated that morality is defined as conformance to a recognized code, doctrine, or system of rules of what is right or wrong and to behave accordingly. Subjects of morality vary but deal with “ought’s” of person-to-person relationships as well as person to animal, and person to environment. Therefore, subjects of morality include marriage, discipline, honesty, business transactions, contracts, child rearing, etc.
From the definitions above, the writers conclude that morality is the study about how moral works and perspective of moral itself. Morality also relates to human beings and their behavior in life. So, moral and morality are always in relation in human’s life.
3.2. Definition of Values
Schwartz (1994:87) stated that value is a concept that describes the belief of an individual or culture. A set of values maybe placed into the nation of a value system. Values are considered subjective across people and cultures. It is possible to classify virtually all specific values from different cultures.
According to Schwartz (1992:35), value as desirable trans situational goal verging in importance that serve as guiding principles in the life of person or other social entity. Values as important and enduring beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or desirable and what is not.
Hartmann (2001:13) quoted by Kinneging explain ethics is concerned with an aspect of the question of what the ancients called the good (kalon, agathon, bonum) and the model. It is often call the valuable, namely that which we call the moral. It is concerned with the question. What is morally is good, what is moral value? And of course the converse question. What is morally not good, i.e. morally bad and evil. What is morally without value? Value is ideal beings. They are therefore part of the world’s make up. We cannot invent them, we can only discover them. Values are thus not subjective but objective. It would seem that at least some values reside outside of human beings, even though perhaps many more are dependent on conscious human beings, who are able to value things.
Hartmann also stated from practical point of view, everything that exists somehow falls under the category of values. Even the remote and in different thing, act, or event either has a positive or negative value. The world of things and their relations is at the same time and no less a world of goods and evils. All these goods and evils are “disvalues”. There are several different species of values. A piece of property, for instance, is a good and has a value, but is not as such a moral value. A book, a vacation, peace of mind, anything may be a good, and anything may be an evil, but this does not make these things morally good and evil moral values.
Being Hartmann maintains, is much richer and more profound than the phenomena that constitute an object to man. Moreover of the existence of some species of value, such as the aesthetic for instance, we are aware, can we hardly be said to have much knowledge.
Two non-moral categories of value are discussed at the length in the ethnics, “subject values” and “good values”. The moral values are, in different ways, grounded on them. Example of subject: values are life, consciousness and mental strength. Good values are, for instance, the piece of property, the book and the vacation mentioned. These values are the material basis of moral values without them moral values would be unthinkable.
An example is given where and would are honest man be superior to a thief, if the things purloined were not somehow of values? What one man can steal? What another can treasure as a possession is not merely a thing but a good, honesty then, if it is a moral value, necessarily presupposes the positive worth of material (e.g. on-formal) goods.
It is inherently dependent upon the later. It those appear that, like real thing, ideal being is hierarchically ordered whole of different strata or layers. Moral values are intrinsically higher than goods values and subject-values according to Hartmann. They are in fact, as far as we can tell, the highest value there are.
Moral values are necessarily affixed to man, primarily to his fact, but also to his character, which is shaped by and expresses in these acts. In the latter case, when values are inherent in a characters, never to things and the relation between them. Only acts or characters can be morally good and evil.
Finally, since given the above moral value of an act does not depend on the value of what is intended but on the moral value of the intention, the moral value of an act does not depend on the success of the act, but merely on the moral value of its attention. If one intends to do what is morally good, but for other reasons does not success the failure does not constitute amoral blemish.
In conclusion of the definitions and example of values that value depends on each individual in life and social entity. Value also can be meant as the belief of individual or culture in life and society.
3.3. Definition of Moral Values
Jacobs (2002:4) said that moral theories concerns about practice, about what people should do. They often make specific claims about which duties take precedence over others when there are conflicts. They make claims about what is morally required and what is prohibited. However, when people reflect on the theories themselves people encounter many issues that do not directly concern what people should do or how people should judge acts or agents. People may find that a theory presupposes that moral value is objective. It may hold that moral value is completely independent of the desires and interest people happen to have.
In addition, moral value, moral theories often make claims or include assumption about the nature and judgment. A theory may presupposes that in making moral claims people are expressing attitude or feeling rather than reporting moral facts or it may hold that correctness of moral judgment is always relative to the norms and standards ourselves or another culture of community. There are always commitments and assumptions in the background are not stated explicitly and they can be crucial to the form and content of moral theory.
There are many theories argue that moral values not expressions of people concern, interests or feelings that because values or objective, there are objective moral reasons, objective action-guiding consideration. Some of them hold that rightness, wrongness, goodness, badness, obligatoriness and other moral properties are in dependent upon feeling, decision or perspective. On this view there are moral value that we can be (or fail to be) responsive to-we do not stipulate, choice or invent them.
Based on the definition above about moral and value, the writer concludes that moral values are the standards of good and evil, which govern as individual’s behavior and choices. Individual’s morals may derive from society and government they of accessesity may change as the laws and morals of the society is change.
According to Schwartz and Boenke (2004:230-255), moral as relating to, dealing with or capable of making the distinction between right or wrong conduct, principles, standards habits with respect to right or wrong in conduct. Values as the social principles, goals or standards held or accepted by an individual, a class, a society, etc. In short, moral value is the relation of belief, behavior and attitude of each individual.
3.4. Types of Moral Values
Based on Bee (1975:287-289), moral values divided into two, they are:
1) Moral message
Moral in the literary work could look as the message, ordered. The element of the message was the idea that provides a basis for the writing of the work, the idea that provides a basis for created the literary work as the message supporter. Moral message delivered through the fiction story certainly different the effect equal that through the non-fiction article. The literary work, fiction offers the moral message that was connected with the noble characteristics of humanity, fought for the right and prestige humankind. The noble characteristics of this humanity in the essence were universal.
It means that the characteristics hand and believed in the truth by world humankind. On the other hand, moral message mainly focused on natural goods, while an individual person has figured him/herself. However, both moral and natural goods are equally relevant to goodness and value theory, which is more general in scope.
The characteristics of humankind will show believed and behavior also will be appeared. It will cause the moral message. Actually, everyone has the moral message from themselves. In each character of movie is able to have the basic of characteristics that can be taken the messages. The message will depend on the special characteristic of character.
For example, the characteristic of character in movie is persistent. The character will act based on his/her characteristic. He/she will struggle his/her desire to be reached. From that, the moral message is appeared. It can be taken by the audience is the character expresses about the struggling of life. It also teaches audiences to be never given up, when having the willingness.
2) Moral Development
The development of morality is a great importance. People can understand the base value of morality. People can develop good internalized rules and to be able to follow the good things in any situation. There are four essential to be considered in developing the morality. The first is roles of laws, customs and rules. The second is role of conscience. This step is the development of a conscience to act as an internal control over the individual’s behavior. The third is role of guilt and scheme. The last is the role of social interaction.
From all step above moral development will be appeared based on the basic characteristic of character that connected in any situation or conflict. The development of character in movie will be taken from the relation of the basic characteristic and conflict that happen in the movie.
For example, the basic character is arrogant, and the situation is there is an old woman who is survived her life. In desperate condition, the character will be changed in that situation. The character will be dissolved by looking the old woman. He/she feels pity when he/she looks her suffers. It means that the moral development is appeared. It is shown by changing of characteristic of character. It is developed by the situation that happens in the movie.
According to Patton and Cochran (2002:2), qualitative research is used in this research to understand some aspect of social life, and its method which generate words rather than number, as data for analysis.
- FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
1) The moral values found in the movie “Chicken Run”.
This movie belongs to animation cartoon movie. It also can be watched by all ages and there are some things that can be learn from the movie. The director and author designed this movie in such a way so that children and adults as audiences enjoy this film easily. They are the reasons, why the writer discusses about moral values are in this movie.
Moral values are the main discussion in this thesis, because this movie tells about the struggle of the main character to go out of her cage. Moral values are appeared from how her efforts to reach her willingness. Based on the theory in the previous chapter, moral values can be defined from the characterization of character, but in this movie the writer can be defined from each action of main character and supporting characters.
The main character and other supporting characters make seven plans and do it, but always get the failure. Although they always get failed, they are never felt tired to try anyways to go out from the cage and look the most beautiful viewing that never they see before. The writer gets the point from the activities and the thinking of each characters, it can be a moral value. Others moral values also are contained in this movie and the writer categories them into two. They are:
- Moral Message
The are positive and negative things in this part. The positive things is the real hero, though is Ginger, a visionary hen who is determined not only to escape herself from the Tweedy farm but to take the entire flock with her. The plucky hen who leads her follow inmates of Tweedy’s Chicken Farm in an audacious mass breakout to secure their freedom. This is no ordinary chicken – dig deep and you will find some unexpected leadership lessons.
It can be seen in the dialog when Mr. Tweedy start to suspect about Ginger’s plan.
SCENE 10 : IN MR. TWEEDY’S HOUSE
Time in : (00:10:15)
Mrs. Tweedy : Hmm! and nine. shillings and thru
pence. Seven and sixpence times
three. Two and nine. Fourpence
ha’penny. Oh! Stupid, worthless
creatures! I’m sick and tired of making
minuscule profits. Hmm… Hmm!
Mr. Tweedy : Oh, yes. Those chickens are up to
Mrs. Tweedy : Quiet. I’m onto something.
Mr. Tweedy : They’re organized, I know it.
Mrs. Tweedy : I said quiet.
Mr. Tweedy : That ginger one, I reckon she’s their
The argument of Mr. Tweedy is the result of Ginger’s activities. She is always caught by Mr. Tweedy and sent to the dustbin. Mr. Tweedy thinks and concludes that Ginger is the leader and has a leadership. She is also brave and optimistic about her plans and it is for common goals.
Indirectly, Ginger as the main character in this movie gives the audience about how to be a leader and reach the general purpose of membership. She also gives leaning about the process of getting the common goals. Ginger also gives learning about how to survive and find other ways to get the escape. This is one of the moral messages that had been found in this movie.
The negative things contained in the movie is when Rocky run away from the farm Mr. / Mrs. Tweedy, he left Ginger and his friends when Ginger and his friends had been getting ready to fly using their wings and escape together from the chicken farm Mr. / Mrs.Tweedy. At the time, Ginger was very sad and disappointed to Rocky, because Rocky could not fly, and he was just chicken circus escaped from the circus.
- Moral Development
Rocky is as the Flying Rooster, a circus escape who re-galvanizes the hens’ escape, plan movement when he agrees to teach them fly in exchange for their hiding him from his show-business pursuers. By showing the hens are swooning over Rocky and all offering to share their roosts with him. This moment of innuendo is both isolated and fleeting.
It can be seen when Ginger persuade Rocky to teach how to fly.
SCENE 25 : IN THE CAGE
Time in : (00:27:36)
Ginger : Hroaakkk…. hroooaaakkkk….
Rocky : What chicken crazy are you?!
They will be heard your sound!!
Oh my God,,No..No..No…
Ginger : Teach us fly and we will hide you!!
Rocky : Teach this week?
Ginger : Yess,, Teach us fly. I just want to freedom..
Rocky : Ughhh..Ughhh…!!!
Ginger : Do you have a deal?!!
Rocky : Huft…
Moral values came from Rocky’s stubbornness characters in the beginning that did not help Ginger. But eventually Rocky helps Ginger to come out of the cage.
- The effect of moral values for the main character
Based on the theory of moral values, it divided into two. They are moral message and moral development.
- Moral Value
There are several moral developments that are contained in the movie. They are:
1) Never give up suffering the problem.
Everybody has to think big and struggle to undergo the problems which are appeared in life. It appeared from the efforts of Ginger as the main character.
The effort How her effort and never known the exhausted she is. It can be seen in some scenes in this movie.
Some scenes are in time (00:01:44): Ginger tries to go out from the hole in one of bottom of fence at night, after Mr. Tweedy checks the farm and back to the house, next in time (00:05:19): Ginger make a plan again and time in time (00:05:27) Ginger and friends do the plans, but the plan is failed again and again. In time (00:06:13) Ginger makes a plan again, and finishes the plan but she is sent back to the dustbin as usual.
In time (00:06:47) Ginger and friends disguise as Mrs. Tweedy for lying of two dogs who are keeping in front of the fence. But it is failed again and again. Until the last plan in time (01:03:05) Ginger makes a plan to make an aircraft and finally, Ginger and her friend’s success to go out from the farm, however Mrs. Tweedy tries to make it fails.
All the way, plans, efforts and struggles of main character and supporting characters prove that they do not easily give up and always try to do the ways to get the successful.
2) Getting high spirit.
Everyone is able to have problem and the death. But everyone has to have high spirit to cover all problems even the death is coming. In the movie, the writer sees from the spirit of Ginger as the leader of escaping the farm. Based on the first moral message from this movie, the writer thinks that without the high spirit ginger and all friends cannot be succeed.
3) To be optimist.
All people in this world are able to have big dream. People must be optimist to get their dream until the maximal efforts. The writer analyzes that Ginger is always optimist until the last ways. When Ginger and all friends make an aircraft together, the dialogue also gives the evidence that they are optimist to escape from the farm.
SCENE 52 : IN THE CAGE
Time in : (00:55:56)
Babs : What have we done?
Ginger : This is it, everyone. We’re escaping!
Babs : What, now?
Ginger : Now!
Mac : But she’s not ready…
Ginger : Listen!
We’ll either die free chickens or die trying.
Babs : Are those the only choices?
Ginger : Let’s do it!
- The efforts of the main character (Ginger)
In this movie, Ginger as main character does several efforts to escape from the farm.
1.) The first effort is Ginger digs the land in the farm by using spoon and makes the hole for passing the gate of the farm. Actually, in this effort is successes, but she has trouble when her friends cannot enter the hole.
This effort can be seen in the introduction of the movie. There is a short talk between Ginger and Bunty and in front of the cage there is short talk between Mr. and Mrs. Tweedy. The dialogues are as follows:
SCENE 1 : IN CAGE
Time in : (00:01:40)
Ginger : Shush!
Bunty : I’m stuck!
Ginger : Get back.
SCENE 2 : IN FRONT OF Mr. TWEEDY’S HOUSE
Time in : (00:03:36)
Mrs.Tweedy : Mr.Tweedy? What is that
chicken doing outside the fence?
Mr.Tweedy : Ooh! I don’t know, luv, I…
Mrs.Tweedy : Just deal with it.Now!
SCENE 3 : IN FRONT OF THE DUSTBIN
Time in : (00:03:51)
Mr.Tweedy : I’ll teach you to make a fool out of me.
Ginger : Ugh!
SCENE 4 : IN FRONT OF THE CAGE
Time in : (00:04:12)
Mr.Tweedy : Now let that be a lesson to the lot of
you! No chicken escapes from Tweedy’s farm!
2) The second effort is Ginger enters to the drinking of chicken and follows Mr. Tweedy after cleaning the farm. Meanwhile all her friend’s follow Ginger, too. When Mr. Tweedy opens the gate, Ginger holds the gate to let her friends for out first. But all her friends hit the gate and Mr. Tweedy looks all her friends. So, they failed again.
3) The third effort is Ginger tries to find a way through the basement. She tries to escape through the basement by using iron wheels like the subway. When she emerges from the underground, is dug up out of the land is not farm, and finally Mr. Tweedy look it. Then, Ginger failed again
4) The four efforts is Ginger and her friends try to impersonate Mrs.Tweedy, by using wood and clothes Mrs. Tweedy. They are trying to get out of the chicken farm unnoticed by Mr. Tweedy or Mr.Tweedy’s guard dog chicken coop, but they are failed again. Because Mrs.Tweedy’s clothes their use is stuck in the gate and ripped. Then, Mr.Tweedy’s guard dog looks it and the dog is chasing them.
Based on the moral values above, there are some effects that influence audiences. They are moral message and moral development. If they have a dream, then they should pursue that dream to become reality, hard work, always trying, never given up things in the need to pursue a dream. Audiences also must not forget the services of people who have helped us in the pursuit of our dreams. They are some effects in moral message. However in moral development can be changed in a special situation, it is appeared in Rocky’s character as the helper of Ginger.
Moral values can be identified from the characterization of main characters. Some efforts are done by main characters in each scenes of this film to go out from their cage. The efforts are; Ginger digs the land in the farm by using spoon and makes the hole for passing the gate of the farm, she enters to the drinking of chicken and follows Mr. Tweedy after cleaning the farm, tries to find a way through the basement, and the last effort is Ginger and her friends try to impersonate Mrs. Tweedy, by using wood and clothes Mrs. Tweedy.
Bee, Havenly. 1975. The Introduction of Morality. Boston
Hartmann. 2001. The Relation of Ethnic, Moral and Values. Cambridge: University Press
James, Pickering and D.Hoeper Jeffry. 1962. Concise companion to Literature. New York: Mac Millan.
Jonathan, A. Jacob.2002. Dimension of Moral Theory: an Introduction of Metatheses and Moral Physicology. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.
Kelley, A. George. 1992. The Conceptual of Morality. United Stated: University Press
Keraf, Sonny. 1991. EtikaBisnis. Yogyakarta: PenerbitKanisius.
Patton, Quinn Michael and Michael Cochran. 2002. A Guide to Using Qualitative Research Methodology. Medecins Sans Frontieres,
Scwartz, Jane.1992. Ethnic, Moral and Value. Cambridge: International Student Edition.
Schwartz ,S. H.and Boenke.K. 2004. Jurnal of Research in Morality. Canada: McGill University.
Shalom, H. Schwartz. 1994. The Basic Human Values. Hebrew: University of Jerussalem,
The effect of Vocabulary Mastery toward the Reading Comprehension Skill for the Students Grade VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District
STIBA IEC Jakarta
This study aims to check out the effect of vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District. The method used in this research is expose facto with the correlation and regression analysis that is connecting between data showing the level vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill of students in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District. Sampling was done by random sampling technique. The respondents are 80 students in this research. The research instruments were the test questions with multiple choice forms. The result showed that there is a significant influence of vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill of English Language on students Grade VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District. This is evidenced by the acquisition of Sig value. 0.003 <0.05 and th = 3.019. Variable vocabulary mastery contributed 13.86% in improving the reading comprehension skill.
Keywords: Learning Styles, Vocabulary Mastery, Reading Comprehension Skill.
English is a very important language in our lives these days. English is used extensively in science, knowledge and technology as well as education, business, transcation, and other activities in the world. Every country in the world has one language that is used as a communication tool and as a national language. Therefore, the mastery of English is an absolute requirement to establish relationships between these countries. Larry E. Smith (1983: 9) states, “English is a means to communicate to the rest of the world, their identity, culture, politics, religion, and ‘way of life’.” In learning English, the learner must master the four basic language skills. The reading skill is one of the most important skills to learn because it is one of the most important ways to improve the general proficiency of language in English such as; enriching vocabulary, improving students’ understanding of reading skill.
In the current era, reading is done every day, morning, afternoon, and evening, even before a bedtime. So reading skill is very important for people who mostly learn English and how they master vocabulary in reading. In order to communicate properly, one must master the vocabulary. The more people master vocabulary the easier for them to convey their ideas. Gorys Keraf (1986: 88) argues that in words one can think, express feelings and ideas. To be able to express ideas and suggestions, both orally and in writing, it is necessary to choose the proper meaning of the word. That is because one word in English can have more than one meaning (multiple meanings) in Indonesian and vice versa, there is more than one word in English that has the same meaning or similar to another word (synonym) in the Indonesian language.
Writers, readers, and speakers should look at situations related to one event to select the right vocabulary to express it. Kamil and Hiebert (2005: 3) state “Failure to distinguish between the different kinds of vocabulary can lead to confusion and disagreement … vocabulary is the knowledge of meanings of words”. Problems will also exist or occur when students do not master vocabulary. The most important thing about learning vocabulary is also emphasized by Horwits and Taylor (in Schmitt and McCorthy, 1997: 201) who say that, “a large number of ESL students solve the question of whether or not they agree very strongly which is the most important part of language learning foreign is the vocabulary “.
Based on the explanation above, the author will conduct field research. The study wanted to use both as two complementary variables to know the effect of vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District.
The purpose of this research is to know the effect of vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District.
- Theoretical Framework
There are several definitions about reading from various ones. Hodgson in the book Reading the work of Tarigan (2008: 7) states that reading is a process done and used by readers to obtain messages, which would be conveyed by the author through the words media or written language. Understanding the reading is a reading strategy that aims to provide an assessment of the reading that involves the readings and make the appropriate analysis (Achmad HP, 2010: 81). In the process of reading, there are two factors involved in it. Both factors include reading factor and reader factor. As Cole reveals reading is the psychological process of determining the meaning of a written word. Reading involves sight, eye movement, inner speech, memory, knowledge of a word that can be understood, and reading experiences (Wiryodijoyo, 1989: 42).
The reading skill is related to the ability to understand the content of the reading. According to Zints (1980:37), there are four stages in the process of reading: “Perception, understanding, reaction, and the ability to read words as meaningful union. Comperehension is the ability to get writers to generate useful thoughts as read in the context.” According to Amran Halim, he states that the speed of reading in question is the speed that does not ignore his comprehension. Reading speed is about 1 minute to read about 250 words. The 1 minute time includes the time it takes to read the quote on which the question is based. (1982:186)
In relation to the reading comprehension skill, reading can be said to get something to be known, to learn to do, to get pleasure and knowledge and writing something (Semi, 1990: 100). And some restrictions on reading above, it can be concluded that reading is a process to understand the content submitted by the author through his writing.
- Reading Comprehension Skill
In connection with the reading comprehension skill, there are several aspects to note (Semi, 1990: 41-42):
1) The written language and symbols aspects.
- a) The ability to understand words and terms,
- b) The ability to understand the patterns of sentences and formations that are increasingly long and difficult,
- c) The ability to correctly interpret the symbols or signs used in the written language.
2) The author’s ideas Aspects.
- a) The ability to recognize the main intent and idea expressed in the essay.
- b) The ability to understand ideas that support the main idea.
- c) The ability to draw the right conclusions
3) The tone and style aspects.
- a) The ability to recognize the author’s attitudes toward the issues he poses and the author’s attitude to the reader.
- b) The technical abilities and writing styles used by the author.
In reading, each reader has the ability to absorb what the author submitted. The reading comprehension skill signifies the effectiveness of reading. “Someone is said comprehence the content of the reading if one is able to answer 40-60% (minimum 50%) or if the reader can answer correctly half and the number of questions” (Nurhadi, I 987: 40). Although someone is said to comprehence a 50% reading and the number of questions, the reading skills of students needs to be improved so that students have adequate reading skills.
The definition of Mastery by W.J.S. Poerwadarminta in Indonesian Big Dictionary is a word derived from the basic word ‘power’ which means understanding or the skill to use the wording or skill (2002: 604). Nurgiyantoro (2001: 162) states that mastery is the ability of a person who can be realized both from theory and practice. A person can be said to master something if the person understands and comprehence the material or concept so that it can apply it to a new situation or concept. From these two concepts, it can be concluded that the mastery is the ability of a person in comprehence the material or concepts that can be realized both theory and practice.
The person who is good at choosing the vocabulary correctly will generate interest in the listener. He will speak fluently, communicatively, and variatively, so it is not boring. By words, one can think, express feeling and ideas. (Gorys Keraf, 1986:88). In line with Keraf, Nurgiyantoro (2001:213) argues that vocabulary, lexicon, is a word possessed by a language.
Harimurti Kridalaksana in DjagoTarigan (1991: 441) states that the vocabulary is the same as the lexicon. The lexicon is (1) a language component that contains information about the meaning and usage of the word in the language; (2) a richness of word is possessed by a speaker, author or a language; and (3) a list of words is compiled like a dictionary, but with a brief and practical explanation. According to Nasution’s vocabulary in detail can be explained as follows: (a) All words contained in a language; (b) words controlled by a person or words used by a group of people from the same environment; (c) the words used in a field of science; (d) a linguistic list of all morpheme presented in a language; and (e) a list of words and phrases from an alphabetically arranged language is with its limits and descriptions (Nasution 1985: 26)
In line with Nasution, Adiwinta in Acts (1991: 41) states that vocabulary is defined as follows:
1) All words contained in the language;
2) Words controlled by a person or words used by a group of people from the same environment;
3) Words used in science;
4) In linguistics, although all morphemes in one particular language are not vocabulary, but most of the morphemes are known as a vocabulary; and
5) There are a number of words, phrases, and terms of an alphabetically arranged language with limits and captions.
Those opinions have in common that the vocabulary is a collection of words possessed by a person of a language. And the vocabulary that someone controls in an environment will be different from the vocabulary in the other environment.
From some opinions above, it can be concluded that the vocabulary is a wealth of words that are owned and used by someone in the activities of language to express the thoughts and feelings in various spheres of life.
- Vocabulary Mastery
In order to communicate properly one must master the vocabulary. The more a person’s vocabulary becomes easier to convey his ideas. A person who has extensive knowledge in the use of vocabulary will find it easier to understand a passage. Harmer (1991:153) states, “If the language structures make up the skeleton of the language, then it is the vocabulary that provides the vital organs and the flesh”. Akhadiah argues that “The use of vocabulary quantitatively means the scope of a vocabulary controlled by a person of a language, while the use of a vocabulary qualitatively means understanding the meaning of a vocabulary controlled by a person of a language.” (1996: 95)
H.G. Tarigan said that the quality of a person’s language skills clearly depends on the quantity and quality of his vocabulary. The more vocabulary a person possesses, the greater the likelihood he is skilled at speaking (1986: 2). Nurgiyantoro (2001: 213) adds that there are various aspects to be considered in the selection of vocabularies to be tested. These aspects are: 1) Vocabulary test material 2) Level of vocabulary test used by Bloom taxonomy
Testing vocabulary mastery according to John Read (2000: 16) is that Vocabulary is knowledge involves knowing the meanings of words and the purpose of the vocabulary is synonym, a dictionary – definition tape, or an equivalent word in their own language. Scott Thornburry (2002) argues that this type of vocabulary consists of Word classes, Word families, Word Formation, Word Unit Compounds, Kolokasi, Homonim, Synonyms and Antonim. While Harmer (1991:158) concluded that understanding vocabulary means knowing about the meaning, the use of words, the formation of words, and the word grammar. He also adds (2001:16) that there are several aspects to be discussed in the vocabulary, namely: the variety of meanings of words (synonyms, antonyms, connotations, and denotations), contextual meanings such as idioms, word combinations (collocations), and words in grammar (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs).
From the experts’ explanation above, it can be concluded that the vocabulary mastery is the ability or skill of students in understanding the meaning of a word in the language based on aspects that are tailored to their grade level or ability.
Based on the focus of the problems and objectives to be achieved, this research belongs to the expose facto method because it looks for causal relationships or factors that influence by collecting data from vocabulary mastery in improving the reading comprehension skill. This study uses correlational analysis technique that is a technique designed to determine how much influence between independent variables with dependent variables. The research was conducted at State Junior High School located in Bekasi District, namely SMP Negeri 5 Setu and SMP Negeri 1 Setu in Bekasi Regency. The study time is scheduled to begin in August to December 2016. It’s begun with observation or pre-field.
Research stages include Pre-survey, Test Instrument, Data Collection, Data Analysis and Data Writing. Data and information in the field were collected with the help of objective tests. To shorten the time, as well as the use of technology, the calculation of descriptive statistics in this study will be completed by using the help of computer program SPSS 20.0. According to Professor and director of research and development Jack R. Fraenkel and Norman E. Wallen: “In a simple form, correlational research investigates the possibility of relationships between only two variables, although investigations of more than two variables are common.” (Fraenkel, 2007 : 335).
- RESULT AND DISCUSSION
- Deskripsi Data
- Data Kemampuan Memahami Bacaan Bahasa Inggris(Y)
The data of English reading comprehension skill is obtained from 80 students who become the research sample. The value obtained is the lowest 60, the highest 95, the average of 80.69, the median of 80.00, the mode of 80 and the standard deviation of 9.062.
Table 4.1. Description of Research Data in Reading Comprehension Skill
|reading comprehension skill|
If it is viewed from the results of the above calculation, it can be said that the reading comprehension skill of class VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District is quite good. This is indicated by an average score of 80.69.
To clarify the above data, illustrated in the histogram as follows:
Figure 4.1. Histogram of Variable Polygon of English Reading Comprehesion Skill
From the histogram and polygon frequency above can be concluded that the the reading comprehension skill of class VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District has a normal distribution.
1.2 Vocabulary Master Data (X)
The Data of vocabulary mastery obtained from the questionnaire score answered 80 students as respondents is produced the lowest value 60, the highest value 95, the average value of 79.81, median of 80.00, the mode of 70 and standard deviation of 10.597.
Table 4.2. Description of Research Data on Vocabulary Mastery
From the calculation above, it can be said that the vocabulary mastery of of class VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District is quite good. This is indicated by the acquisition of the average score of student vocabulary score 79.81.
To clarify the above data, it is illustrated in the histogram as follows:
Figure 4.2. Polygon Histogram Variable Vocabulary Mastery
From the histogram and polygon frequency above can be concluded that the vocabulary mastery of of class VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District has a normal distribution.
- The Test Requirements of Regression Analysis
2.1 Classic Assumption Test
- Data Normality Test
The good regression requirement is if the research data follows a normal distribution.
Table 4.3. Data Normality Test
|One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test|
|Kemampuan Memahami Bacaan Bahasa Inggris||Penguasaan Kosakata|
|Most Extreme Differences||Absolute||.123||.138|
|Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)||.178||.096|
|a. Test distribution is Normal.|
|b. Calculated from data.|
From the table above, it shows that hypothesis test that states the distribution of data in this regression analysis follows the normal distribution. This is indicated by all Asymp values. Sig> 0.05. This means that all data is normally distributed.
- Heteroscedasticity Test
The notion of heteroscedasticity is when the observed error or residual has no constant variant. The condition of heteroscedasticity often occurs in cross section data, or data taken from some respondents at a given time.
One method of detecting heteroscedasticity is to create standardized Residual (ZRESID) and Standardized Predicted Value (Y cap) scatter plots. In the picture below shows no change e as long as Y cap, then stated no heteroskedastisitas on error (error / residual) it.
Gambar 4.3. Scatterplot of Heteroscedasticity test
From the picture above shows that the points spread randomly and did not form a certain clear pattern, as well as scattered above or below the number 0 on the Y axis. This shows that there is no heteroscedasticity in the regression model, so it can be used to predict variable of reading comprehension skill based on vocabulary mastery
- Galat Normality Test
The good regression requirement is if the research data follows a normal distribution.
Table 4.4. Error Normality Test
|One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test|
|Most Extreme Differences||Absolute||.074|
|Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed)||.775|
|a. Test distribution is Normal.|
|b. Calculated from data.|
From the table above shows that the hypothesis test that states the residual distribution in this regression analysis follows the normal distribution. This is indicated by the value of Z = 0.661 and Sig. = 0.775> 0.05. This means the assumption or requirement of regression analysis is met.
- Linearity Test
The linearity test is performed to determine the technique in the regression analysis whether the variable of vocabulary mastery (X) and the variable of reading comprehension skill (Y) is linear. This linearity test uses SPSS 20.0 calculation
Table 4.5. Test Results Linearity Regression Variable Y over X
|Sum of Squares||Df||Mean Square||F||Sig.|
|Reading Comprehension skill * Vocabulary mastery||Between Groups||(Combined)||1466.569||7||209.510||3.005||.008|
|Deviation from Linearity||193.861||6||32.310||.463||.833|
Based on the above results perhiungan obtained Deviation from Linearity results with Fo = 0.463 and Sig. = 0.833> 0.05. This has the sense that the variable vocabulary mastery with the reading comprehension skill has a linear relationship.
- Hypothesis Test
The result test of the effect of the vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill is as in the table below:
Table 4.6. The Result of Multiple Regression Equation of Variables X1 and X2 on Y
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||t||Sig.|
|a. Dependent Variable: Reading comprehension skill|
H_0: β_y2 = 0
H_1: β_y2 ≠ 0
H0: there is no influence of vocabulary mastery on the ability to understand English reading
H1: There is an influence of vocabulary mastery on the ability to understand English reading
From table 4.6., it can be stated that there is a significant influence of vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill. This is evidenced by the acquisition of Sig value. 0.003 <0.05 and th = 3.019.
The contribution of variable vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill is:
KD = Value β_x2y x Value of the Pasialnya Correlation (r_x2y) x 100%
KD = 0.313 x 0.443x 100% = 13.86%
From the calculation above, it can be stated that the contribution of vocabulary mastery in improving the reading comprehension skill is 13.86%.
From the results of existing research and theory can be concluded that the vocabulary mastery has a positive effect of vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill for class VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District. That is, high vocabulary mastery has a significant effect in improving the reading comprehension skill for class VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District.
Vocabulary mastery in reading is an important basis of learning in seeking information and knowledge. Someone can improve their knowledge through reading some books, journals, magazines and so on. The ability to read is one of the most important skills to learn. This is because the ability to read is one of the most important ways to improve the general ability in English such as; enriching vocabulary, improving students’ comprehence.
In this conclusion, the author describe briefly the results of research obtained in the field can be drawn conclusion that there is a significant effect vocabulary mastery toward the reading comprehension skill for class VIII in the State of Junior High School in Bekasi District. This is evidenced by the acquisition of Sig value. 0.003 <0.05 and th = 3.019. Variable vocabulary mastery contributes 13.86% in improving the reading comprehension skill.
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