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(A Content Analysis of Coca Cola Advertisement 2014)
Desi Rahmania Sari
Student of STIBA-IEC Jakarta
Bejo Sutrisno, M.Pd.
Lecturer of STIBA-IEC Jakarta
In coca cola ads America the beautiful, the writers analyze moral values on video Coca Cola. The writer used three video Coca-Cola ads America the beautiful, and some related books as the resource the data. The writer watched the video and then analyzed the data. From the analysis the writer conclude that some moral values are freedom, individualism, Achievement, tolerance, and the future. Coca cola indicates that America is so diverse nations, cultures, languages, and ethnics. It’s beautiful thing and Coca cola make this video to celebrate diverse culture in America. America is the place to learn how to mutual respect with others. And America is country that innovates because America is unique and capable changes in the surrounding environment and brings the profit and success
According Gary Althen (2003:3-5) In Coca cola advertisement “America the Beautiful”, many people from different nations, ethnics, and cultures sing America the Beautiful using different languages like English, French, Spanish, Arabic, India, Hebrew, and Tagalog. Coca cola Ad describes the country of America consisting of different cultures. Gary Althen stated that Americans have values and assumption in different cultures in their daily lives specifically in living with different cultures. Values are ideas what are right and wrong, desirable and undesirable, normal and abnormal, proper and improper. In some culture example people are thought that man and woman should inhabit separated social world, with activity clearly in the men’s domain and other clearly in the woman. In other cultures man and woman are considered to have more or less equal access to most roles in the society. Assumption, as used here is the postulates, the unquestioned givens about people, life, and the way things are. People in some societies assume, for example, that family life precedes most harmoniously when woman stay at home with the children and man earn money by working outside the home. In other some societies assume that family life work best when outside work and child rearing responsibilities are share by man and woman. In other some societies assume that when a mature man and woman are alone together, sexual activity will almost certainly occur. In others, platonic (that is, lacking a sexual element) friendship between unmarried man and woman is assumed to be possible. American cultures hold on individualism, freedom, competitiveness, and privacy.
In United States of America advertising is huge business. Like coca cola advertising “America the beautiful” coca cola does market research for their consumer, testing out various sales pitches in the quest for ones that will be influential with differing age, income, ethnic, and other groups. Coca cola ads inform them about available products and services while encouraging them to buy. From the viewpoint of customers from abroad, though, advertising can serve an additional purpose: it affords countless insights into American values, taste, and standards. Coca cola ads can gain some understanding of American society, firstly American ideas about youthfulness and physical attractiveness in males and females, seconds American ideals concerning personal hygiene, thirds the amount of faith Americans have in arguments that include facts and specific numbers, forth male and female relationship both pre and post marital, fifth the characteristics of people who in American’ eyes are considered “authorities” who ideas or recommendations are persuasive, and lastly the sort of things that Americans find humorous.
So coca cola ads can be concluded that coca cola ads trying to understand consumer’s need and behavior by making hyperbole advertisement, and coca cola trying to create consumer perception that coca cola is a beverage, which can be consumed by anyone and anywhere, but more than that coca cola trying to demonstrate the benefit of psychological to consumers. Therefore the writer interested in finds out a more broadly about coca cola ads using American culture as a symbol of the world firstly, the seconds the writer will analyze some statements of people in coca cola ads “America the beautiful” like Carolin and Sushmitha.
Carolyn from English says: “Hearing all the different languages, everyone has their own interpretation. Not everything fits the same way, but I think that’s what makes it so special. I think, like everyone having a different way just kind of shows what it really is”. Sushmita from India says: “The message that we’re sending through this video is so beautiful, that we are all the same. We just have different backgrounds and that’s ok. We’re all American, and we can come together to make change”
The objective of this research is to find out moral of value on coca cola ads “America the beautiful” and the moral message on coca cola ads “America the beautiful”
3. Theoretical Framework
3.1 Concept of Moral Value
Morals have a greater social element to values and tend to have a very broad acceptance. Morals are far more about good and bad than other values. According to Hurlock Elizabeth (1997:386), “moral” comes from Latin word mores, meaning manners, custom and folkways. Moral behavior means behavior in conformity with the moral code of the social group. It is controlled by moral concepts the rules of behavior to which the members of a culture have become accustomed and which determine the expected behavior patterns of all group members. Morality has three principal meaning. In its “descriptive” sense, morality refers to personal or cultural values, codes of conduct or social mores that distinguish between right and wrong in the human society. Describing morality in this way is not making a claim about what is objectively right or wrong, but only referring to what is considered right or wrong by people. For the most part right and wrong acts are classified as such because they are thought to cause benefit or harm, but it is possible that many moral beliefs are based on prejudice, ignorance or even hatred, this sense of term is also addressed by descriptive ethics.
Barcallow E (2006:2-4) stated that In its ?normative” sense, morality refers directly to what is right and wrong, regardless of what people think. It could be defined as the conduct of the ideal, ?moral” person in a certain situation, this usage of the term is characterized by ?definitive” statements such as ? that act is immoral” rather than descriptive ones such as ? Many believe that act is immoral”. It is often challenged by a moral skepticism, in which the unchanging existence of a rigid, universal, objective moral ?truth” is rejected. The normative usage of the term ? morality” is also addressed by normative ethics. Moral issue concern both behavior and character; they arise when life presents people with such question as „?what should I do (or not do)”, ? how should I act?” etc. moral issues arise most fundamentally when the choices people face will affect the well being of others by either increasing or decreasing it, causing either harm or benefit. The well being involved can be physical and psychological harm (1) by creating or intensifying such painful psychological states as loneliness, fear, depression, hopelessness, despair, unhappiness, anxiety, and sadness and (2) by eroding such positive psychological states as self-confidence, self-respect, happiness, and feeling of self worth.
Values are related to the norms of a culture, but they are more general and abstract than norms. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situation, while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm, but it reflects the value of patriotism. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family. Different cultures reflect different values. Over the last three decades, traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others. Values seemed to have changed, affecting the beliefs, and attitude of college student. Values are the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn’t, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another. Values are ideals that guide or qualify your personal conduct and interaction with other. They help you to distinguish what is right from what is wrong and inform you on how you can conduct your life in a meaningful way. Values are those things that are really important to us. The ideas and beliefs we hold as special.
According to Hurlock (1997:386), moral behavior means behavior in conformity with the moral code of social group. Moral development has both an intellectual and impulsive aspect. Children must learn what is right and what is wrong. Moral behavior is behavior that conforms to the standards of the group with which the individual is identified. But, unmoral or immoral behaviors fail to do so. This failure is due to disapproval of social standards or lack of felling of obligation to conform to these standards-immoral behavior or ignorance of social standards-unmoral behavior.
From above theories it can be concluded that the value can help us to distinguish between right and wrong, desirable and undesirable, normal and abnormal, proper and improper and lead us to do something means, everything has value because it is valuable.
According to As Bovée and Arens (1992:7-8) that advertising is a part of the marketing mix. It is a form of promotion as well as, for example, sales promotion or personal selling. Advertising can be defined as “the nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media. As Bovée and Arens further explained, it is called nonpersonal because it is directed to a group or groups of people rather than to individuals. That is also the reason why advertising is frequently called mass communication. It is used to inform or remind readers about particular products and to persuade them to act. According Hynes and Janson (2007:322), advertisement must be considered to be ‘relics’ thriving on what is going on in society. Advertising serves to describes the events that occur in society. The meanings advertising serves to describe the events that occur in society. According Professor Jef Richard, advertisement is the ‘ wonder’ wonders bread which means advertising is paid communication to promote. Advertising is one valuable domain in which to study persuasion because the main goal of an advertisement is to change customer’s attitudes and convince them to buy particular products.
3.3 Kinds of Advertising
Jean Grow, and Tom Altstiel (2007:195-200) stated some kinds of advertising that can be found in public. Those are:
a. A Magazine
A magazine ad is an ideal palette for applying all the creative strategies and tactics we’ve discussed in previous chapters. Magazines also present a lot of creative opportunities based on the variety of sizes, shapes, and multiple page combinations. Finally, a magazine ad is a perfect size and shape for your portfolio small enough to fit anywhere, large enough for long copy and to make a design statement.
b. Posters and Bulletins
People in the outdoor advertising business don’t talk about “billboards”. The two main types of outdoor displays are the painted bulletin and the outdoor poster. The difference is the way they are displayed posters use sheets of preprinted paper glued to backboards, and bulletins traditionally have used hand painted images. Today, painted bulletins have given way to super flex vinyl-coated fabric that gives them almost magazines like quality. Posters can be a creative persons best bet to pad portfolio and win awards. Technically all you have to do is print one, post it somewhere, and voila, you’ve produced a real world advertisement, seen by someone other than your roommate.
c. Direct mail
Direct mail is marketing communication tool that enables direct response as well as other kinds of transaction. Direct mail is simply a delivery medium, one very effective way for sellers to interact, transact, and directly with buyers
Radio presents a perfect opportunity for you to flex creative muscles in totally new ways. You’re using words, music, and sound instead of pictures. When you’re the writer or producer, the radio commercial is your baby, and the art director can’t save your lame idea with a great layout.
When most of us decided to become advertising practitioners, there was one prime reason television. Television offers the glamour of show business plus the impact to make or break a brand virtually overnight. Creating a major TV ad campaign not only lets millions of people see your work, it may also shape pop culture for years.
Today, online advertising has achieved a solid comeback and appears to be headed for long-term, sustained growth.
To analyze the moral of America the beautiful, qualitative method is used. Qualitative method is descriptive research and tends to use inductive analysis approach.
B. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Coca cola ads take a theme America the beautiful means to celebrated the many kinds, color, lifestyles, and origins of American who are nonetheless one. Over a scene of these many American sing America the beautiful, it showed American face, young, old, brown, white, straight, cowboy, Muslims, Jewish, playing, eating, and exploring all American vistas. From coca cola ads America the beautiful, the writer can see some moral value as follows;
1) In the first scene (look picture 1) picture America the beautiful, seen cowboys who were riding horse in endless pastures. Cowboys generally prefer a more simple life and one that is not necessarily connected back to nature, but back to the rural outdoor where everything was much simpler. The American cowboy lives what he believes, and does not worry about conforming to anyone’s mold; a cowboy is a man of substance, strength and courage. Cowboy symbols of cowboy hats, cowboy boots, spurs, horses, and belt buckles are evidence of the real culture of hard work, horsemanship, and individualism. The symbol of cowboy means America is the future goals and self-reliance. In order to succeed and achieve personal best, one must be strong and independent
2) In the second scene (look picture 2), seen a girl being chewed gum. Gum is away to bleed off energy, gum represent American overly carefree attitude and need to take life a little more seriously. The symbol of gum means American people must to confront some fear or battle the depression.
(Picture 2) (Picture 3)
3) In the third scene (look picture 3), there were two girls who were sharing popcorn while watching movies. Share popcorn with your friends indicates that you can hope and count on a collaborative effort that is going to be beneficial to you. Popcorn is symbolized as seeking knowledge and being willing to learn. So American people must be willing to work hard and take the steps to make the dream reality
4) In the fourth scene (look picture 4), there is a girl who was blowing the powder out of his hands. Bellows is symbolized as benefits and blessing.
(Picture 4) (Picture 5)
5) In the fifth scene (look picture 5), there are those people were surfing at the beach. Surfing is symbolized as the ups and down emotional situation or relationship, you may feel overwhelmed, one minute you can be in control of your emotions and the next minute you are not.
6) In the sixth scene (look picture 6), seen children who are doing tap dance along with her or his friends. Tap-dancing evolved from mainly an American style of dancing seen on plantations and Irish American step dancing. Tape dance is symbolized for African Americans to find a place in society. Tap was more advantageous to African Americans than other forms of dance because it helped them break away from oppressive aspects of their life. It served as a way to define them and lay claim to something. It was a way not only to gain control over their lives, but it was a way to communicate. Dancing is not just to perform, but also to communicate with audience.
7) In the seventh scene (look picture 7a.b.c), seen a girl who was on her way see the breadth of the desert and seen the happy family who was camper. The camp is symbolized native Americans Indians were a deeply spiritual people and they communicated their history, thoughts, ideas, and dreams from generation to generation through symbol. Native American symbol are geometric portrayals of celestial bodies, and natural phenomena. It means Americans more adventurous.
(Picture 7.a) (Picture 7.b)
8) In the eighth scene (look picture 8), seen an America people from different cultures who was eating dinner and gather together. It means although America comes from different cultures they remain one family.
2. The moral message of America the beautiful
The coca cola is spreading this message of being culturally connected and coca cola take the attitude to diversity and equality that America is a country of diverse cultures. America has opened her arm to the people of many countries that ultimately make America a great country. America is a home to all and coca cola convey the message that actually has to be value for this that the world is so diverse, but can be combined with the simple things like smiles, togetherness, hobbies and of course coca cola. Any activities and whoever the person and is still drinking coca cola.
9) CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
After making an analysis in moral value coca cola ads America the beautiful, the writer concludes that there are America is a home to all because America has opened her arm to the people of many countries. Coca cola shows to the world that America is so diverse nations, cultures, languages, and ethnics that they are American. Although different background they are all equal, it doesn’t matter who they are because they come to America to get happiness, freedom, and a better life.
America is country that innovates because America is unique and capable changes in the surrounding environment and brings the profit and success.
On the other hand American is also referred to as adventurous because they are courageous and like to look for challenges and risk. American like a music and dance as a sign to communicate with different people other Americans to express them respectively. America is a country that tolerate high because America always respect between individual groups in society although despite of different nation because a sense of the American people is very high socialization.
The writer suggest that the readers to learn how to understand the culture of others who are different. Understanding of the cross-cultural understanding is very important because if not careful to understand it will cause problems. But if the reader has a sense of high cultural sensitivity for others will create relationships in a harmonious and peaceful life.
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Barcallow E.Moral Philosophy:Theories &Issues. Belmont CA:Wadsworth, 2006
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Hurlock,Elizabeth B.Child growth and development. United States; McGraw Hill, 1997
Hyne,Janson.Global Imagery in online advertisement, Business Communication Quarterly, 2007
Jean,Grow,Tom Altsiel.Advertising Strategy.London: Sage, 2007