Letcurer of STIBA IEC Bekasi
The purpose of this study are to prove or determine the effect of cooperative learning model type TGT on reading comprehension , to prove or to determine the effect of learning motivation on reading comprehension and to know the interaction effect of cooperative learning and learning motivation together on reading comprehension, especially for Vocational High School (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan /SMK) students. The study used survey and experiment with analysis model of treatment by level. Anova Two-Way is used to test the hypothesis. Experiment is carried out in two groups or samples, each of them was given different treatment. The first group called Experiment Class, a class that was taught by using cooperative learning type Team Game Tournament (TGT) with combination of reading race, while the second group called a Control class, a class that was taught by using expository method. Each group is then divided into two categories of level of learning motivation. The first group is a group of students with high learning motivation level, the second one with low learning motivation level. The research found that : (1) there is a significant effect of using cooperative learning on students reading comprehension achievement. It shows that sig = 0.000 < 0.05 and Fo=32,846 ; (2) there is a significant effect of the student’s learning motivation on students reading comprehension achievement , with sig = 0.000 < 0.05, and Fo = (52.566); and (3) there is a significant interaction effect together between cooperative learning and student’s learning motivation on students reading comprehension achievement with sig = 0.009 < 0.05 and Fo = 7.252
Language is a means of communication between members of community in the form of sound symbol produced by the human vocal organs“. (Gorys Keraf 2004:1) .Through language, people interact and communicate each other. Aside being means of communication, a language also serves to convey information, expresses thought, ideas, and learns about science. To communicate each other either with the same language or different language backgrounds, someone should have the language skill, that is the ability to communicate ( communication skill). The communication skill in the context of language skills can be obtained from formal and non-formal education. In non-formal schools, language skills acquired through training or language courses. While in formal educations or schools, language skills acquired by students through language learning from primary school to university level. One of the language skills will be disscused in this article is reading skill.
Through pre observations and inputs from some English teachers at vocational high schools found that many students still have the difficulties when they learn reading comprehension texts. They get difficulties in translating the words or sentences, understanding the text, and answering the reading comprehension questions. As a result they failed to get the acquisition skill of reading and student’s language achievement.
The facts above reinforced by Ardian Anjar et al. In the American Journal of Education Research, 2015. Vol.3, 250-254. In his presentation Anjar states that “ research results from PISA (The Programme for International Student Assessment) in 2006 and PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Litercay) in 2011 showed that the Reading Literacy students in Indonesia is still very low”. More Anjar added that in 2006 Indonesia was ranked the 48 its reading literacy from 58 countries participating in PISA.
There are so many factors that effect the students’ poor reading comprehension, one of them is the lack of students’ interest on reading. And one of the main reasons of this failure is the lack of students reading motivation. It is found in schools that students are less motivated to learn, especially reading, because of various things in between teacher’s factor. Eventhough teachers have lot of training on teaching techniques and learning models, still many teachers use traditional or conventional methods in teaching. They only apply simple method such as lecturing method, and memorising task. Teachers fail to apply the latest, interesting, interactive, and varied learning methods, so that the class learning process is absolutely boring. As a result students are not well motivated to learn.
From the above explanation, the writer choose one model of learning, ie Cooperative Learning model Team Game Tournament (TGT) with combination of Reading Race to teach reading comprehension. This learning model chosen as one of the free variable that will be examined in this study. Another thing that affects the students ability to understand the reading text is their motivation to learn. Students motivation is low. It can be seen from the attitudes of students when they are learning language. The students are not fully pay attention on teachers, less enthusiastic, reluctant to do the tasks. Through this phenomenon, the writer is interested to know whether a significant difference between the use of cooperative learning model TGT, with combination of reading race and learning motivation on students reading comprehension achievement, and how much do they influence it.
The purpose of this study are to prove or determine the effect of cooperative learning model TGT with combination of reading race on reading comprehension , to prove or to determine the effect of learning motivation ond reading comprehension and to know the interaction effect of cooperative learning and learning motivation together on reading comprehension, especially for Vocational High School (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan /SMK) students.
The significances of this study are:
1).Theoritically, this research may contribute to library documents, used as a reference for further research, reveals the the problem related with cooperative learning model Team Game Tournament on Student’s reading comprehension achievement, reveals the problem related with learning motivation on student’s reading comprehension, adds insight knowledge about the use of cooperative learning model Team Game Tournament combined with Reading Race and learning motivation on students reading comprehension, encourage other researches to conduct similiar reaserch broader and deeper.
2).In practical terms, this reserach could give the contribution to the practitioners of education, including government, education stakeholders, headmasters, teachers, college students on applying the cooperative learning model TGT with combination of Reading Race and learning motivation on teaching students reading comprehension.
- Library Review
Some of the previous researches related to this study are:
1).” The effect of Learning Motivation and Vocabulary Mastery on Students Reading Comprehension for High Schools Students of SMAN Jakarta Timur Grade XII,” by Jimmy Hitipeuw, Thesis (2014). In this reserach, the author discusses the learning motivation and its influence on reading comprehension. He also discusess many points anspects to consider when conducting students reading comprehension.
2). “The Effect of Learning Model and Students’ Selfconfidence on Mastering The Biology Concept of The Human Digestion System, “Dian Listiani,Thesis (2014). This study describes kinds of learning model, kinds of cooperative learning compared with expository learning model to teach a lesson concept of Biology. She shows us that there is significant effect of cooperative learning on her teaching and learning process.
5. Theoretical Framework
Learning by Suhaenah Suparno (2001: 2) “is an activity that causes a relatively permanent change as a result of efforts done”. Definitions of learning according to Hamzah (2014: 54): “Learning is essentially a conscious activity for achieving a change, concerning the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values “. While the definition of learning by Hilgard and Brower in Oemar Hamalik (2014: 45); “Learning is a change in the act through activities, practice, and experience”.
From the above quotes, the writer summarizes the information that in the learning process will be obtained changes that include changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values through conscious effort, training and experience. So the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values that belongs to a student in fact obtained from the learning. Similarly, the ability to understand the reading text of students do not come instantly, but derived from a variety of exercises in learning activities.
In the case of learning, the writer tried to link learning theory in general with language learning theory. Learning a language means you will also learn about a new culture, a new way of thinking, feeling, and acting. Many theories related to language learning, such as language acquisition theory (language acquisition). Then expand to other theory, like the theory of language learning either as a first language learning, a second language learning, as well as learning foreign languages.
The discussion of language acquisition or learning a language (language acquisition) theory of are very broad scope, and it has been specifically and detail covered in learning to read, the writer will only quote some theory that relate to the theory of learning, especially learning a language or language acquisition (language acquisition). (Brown (2007: 1) states:
“Many variables are Involved in the acquisition process. Language learning is not as easy steps that can be programmed in a quick do-it-yourself kits. So much is at stake their courses in foreign languages are often inadequate training grounds, in and of themselves, for the successful learning a second language “.
So in general, we can understand that learning a language requires a series of processes that are not simple. So many problems that exist so foreign language courses are not enough into the training ground for the success for learning a foreign language or a second language. In (Harmer: 2007, h.47), applied linguistics renowned American expert Stephen Krashen further sharpens the understanding between Acquisition and Learning. Acquisition considered a subconscious learning process (subsconscious process), while learning a language is learning a conscious (conscious study of language). Then Harmer (2007: 47) explains fully as follows:
“Some theoriests, American applied linguist Stephen Notably Kreshen in the 1980s, have suggested that we can make a distinction between acquisition and learning. Whereas the former is subsconscious and anxiety free, learning is conscious process where separate items from the language are studied and practised in turn “.
5.2. Teaching and Learning Process
According to Moh.Usman Uzer (1990: 1) in Suryosubroto (2009: 16) “the learning process is a process containing a course of conduct of teachers and students on the basis of reciprocal relationships that take place in an educational situation for achieving certain goals.” Here is the definition of ” Teaching ” by J.J. Hasibuan and Moedjiono (2012: 3),
“Teaching is the creation of an environment that allows the learning process. Environmental systems consist of components that influence each other, ie, instructional objectives, to be achieved, the material being taught, teachers and students must play a role as well in a particular social, types of activities performed, as well as the facilities and infrastructure available “.
While Suryosubroto (2009: 16) defines, “teaching is essentially learning activities, so that teaching and learning can take place effectively and efficiently”. From the various foregoing view, the learning process is important in the interaction between teachers and students through reciprocal communication between students and teachers of students who take place effectively and efficiently.
In the learning process consists of the top aspects of interacting with each other to achieve instructional goals. Without this aspect it will not be possible to expect the process. These aspects include: 1). Aspects of Instructional Objectives, 2) .Aspect of Lessons, 3). Aspects of Teaching and Learning Strategies Method or, 4). Instructional Media Aspects, 5). Aspects of Assessment, 6). Supporting Aspect facilities, time, place, and Supplies, 7). Aspect Workforce. Hamalik (2014: 63-64)says ,” each aspect has a different function, but has a unity”.
Aspect number 7 covers aspects of workforce; teacher and student. The role of teachers in teaching is very important, because teachers will guide and determine the teaching objectives. In the process of teaching, teachers also have to design and deliver the learning process to students with a variety of approaches, techniques, and methods that had been mastered. In teaching the teacher can choose a variety of teaching methods, both traditional teaching methods and modern teaching methods. And none has been proven teaching methods in the world the best among the other teaching methods. “Nasution (2013: 74). further Nasution argued:” in fact, that not every student wants the same method.” …………… Thus the use of the methods for all students apparently are not always effective. Besides giving an opportunity to the students to choose the most appropriate method for them, gives greater possibility to improve student achievement in learning “.
“Various approaches, techniques, and methods have been tested, used, developed by teachers in teaching, but one of the ultimate goal of all these efforts is to achieve instructional goals, or more concrete and measurable, the achievement of student learning. Student achievement is one indication of the success of the learning process. One of the criteria for the success of the learning process is the mutual and good interaction between students and teachers to achieve certain goals. The purpose of learning in these discussions has acquired a capability, the ability to understand the reading comprehension text.
If our discussion relating to the use of the method, the development of teaching techniques, means the whole center of our attention on the activities of centralized and performed by teachers, namely teaching, then developed the idea to change the attention not only on the “teaching” but the “learning”. Experts of pedagogy and psychology then switch to pay more attention to the activities undertaken by the students, the learning, not teaching (learning not teaching). Then there developed a model and learning strategies include: “Acquisition Learning Model Concepts (Concept Attaintment Model), Inductive Thinking Learning Model, In-quiry Training Learning Model, (Non-Directive Teaching) Learning Model , Long Distance Learning Model , Adult Learning Model, Student Active Based Learning),” Uno B. (2014: 10-21). Decade of 1970 until now, learning models continue to emerge and evolve, because science and technology is developing rapidly, and affect learning activities. Learning activity is growing very rapidly, because learning is directly related to student learning activities, and this constitutes one aspects that determine the success of
teaching and learning process.
If the teachers are less skilled on using varied, interesting, current and fun learning models, students will experience boredom during their the lessons, consequently students will experience learning demotivation. Decreased motivation to learn means less enthusiasm for learning, and consequently reduced achievement or learning outcomes. Failure to learn means failure to achieve instructional purposes. Failure of the instructional objectives means, not obtaining student success in reading comprehension, more concretely students experiencing an error or failure in reading comprehension, ie making many mistakes in answering the quiz, questions, problems or tests related to reading comprehension.
In connection with the discussion of the learning model, the writer try to choose one model of group learning (cooperative learning) developed by Robert E.Slavin and other experts, for teaching reading or teaching reading comprehension (English Reading Comprehension). The learning model is believed to stimulate the students to be more excited and achievement of learning, because learning model is the most widely researched and tested in various countries around the world. The writer chose a model of cooperative learning type TGT (Team Game Tournament) as a learning model that will be studied.
5.3. Cooperative Learning
Cooperative comes from the word “cooperative”, which means doing something together to help each other as a group (Slavin: 1995 in Isjoni 2014: 15). Slavin stated, “In cooperative learning methods, students work together in four members teams to master material initially presented by the teacher”. Cooperative means working together. People who have nature of cooperation could be called as a cooperative people . Cooperative contain elements of social meanings when used to describe the cooperative skills. Cooperative skills include: skill to respect the opinion of others, encouraged to participate, dare to ask, encourage friends to ask, take turns and share tasks. Cooperative skills have links with cooperative learning.
2). Definition of Cooperative Learning .
(Artz & Newman, 1990, p.448) defines cooperative learning is, “a small group of students who work together as a team to solve the problem, complete a task, or complete general purpose”. In cooperative learning the students will work in groups. Teachers will plan and direct instruction by dividing the class into small groups. (Steven & Slavin, 1995a) ” cooperative learning experience increases higher achievement and greater retention of the individual experience learning for all students”. Here are some definitions of other experts on Cooperative Learning. (Sunal and Hans (2000) in Isjoni, 2014: 12) argues, “Cooperative learning is an approach or a series of strategies specifically designed to give impetus to the learners to work together during the process of learning “. (Stahl (1994) in Isjoni, 2014: 12) states, “cooperative learning can improve student learning better, and improve the attitude of
helping in social behavior”.
Cooperative Learning is different from the study group. Each cooperative learning is group work activities, while working or learning groups are not always as cooperative learning. The distinguished factors in cooperative learning are :
- Positive Independence, namely the mutual relationship based on their interests or the same feeling among the group members. If there is a person’s success is the success of the group or vice versa.
- Face-to-face interaction, the direct interaction among students without intermediaries.
- Their personal responsibility regarding the subject matter within the members of the group, so that students are motivated to help his friends, because the objective of cooperative learning is to make each member of the group into a strong personality.
- Requires flexibility, creating interpersonal relationships, develop skills groups, and maintain an effective working relationship. Isjoni. (2014: 41)
There are three main concepts that characterize cooperative learning, namely:
- Group recognition , the group’s goals in cooperative learning is group award, if the group got a score above the prescribed criteria.
- Individual accountability, the group’s success depends on the individual learning and accountability that focuses on the activities of the group members help each other in learning.
- The same opportunities to succeed, each group has an opportunity to win the group for using the scoring method in the assessment group. Isjoni. (2014: 21).
5. 4. Cooperative Learning Types
Cooperative learning is divided into several types
- STAD (Student Teams Achievement Divisions).
- Investigation Group (Co-op co-op)
- TGT (Team Game Tournament)
- Numbered Heads Together (NHT)
- CIRC (Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition)
- TAI (Team Assisted Individualization or Team Accelarated Instruction)
- The Power of Two (TPT)
- Inside-Outside Circle (IOC)
- listening Team
- Make a Match
5.5. Student’s Learning Motivation
Motivation comes from the word “motif” which means the power contained within the individual, which causes the individual to move. The motive can not be observed directly, but can be interpreted in behavior, a stimulus, encouragement, or a power empower the appearance of a certain behavior. Uno B. (2008: 3) .Hamzah B. Uno (2008: 3) divides motif into three parts:
1) Biogenetic Motif, namely affirmative motives derived from needs of the organism for the Sake of the continuation of life, such as hunger, thirst, breathing, sexuality, and so on.
2) Sociogenetic Motif, the motives are growing and coming from social and cultural environment where the person is located. For example, willing to listen to the TV news, special fried rice eating, drinking fresh juices, and others.
3) Theological Motif, the motifs are derived from the individual to interact with his God, because the real man as religious human beings. For example, the desire to worship and practice their religion norms.
5.6. Function of Learning Motivation
Motivation to learn is considered important in the teaching and learning process in terms of functionality and value or benefits. This suggests that learning motivation encourages behavior and influences and changes the behavior of students. Sardiman (2014: 85) presents three motivational functions, namely:
1). Encourage behavior or actions.
Without motivation, it will not arise a deed or action. Motivation in this terms is the motor of any activity that would be done.
2). Motivation as directions or pointers.
Motivation drives change to achieve desired. Thus, the motivation can provide direction and activities that must be performed in accordance with the formulation of objectives.
3). Motivation as a motor
It means moving the person’s behavior. In addition, learning motivation can be function as efforts and achievements encouragements.
5.7. Types of Motivation
In general, the motivation can be divided into two types: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
1). intrinsic motivation
According to Harmer (2007: 20), “intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that is generated by what happens inside the classroom; this could be teacher’s methods, the activities that students take part in, or Reviews their perception of Reviews their success or failure “. Harmer explains that intrinsic motivation comes from within the individual, the students in the class, for example: teachers teaching methods, student activities, and student perceptions of success and failure in learning. Brown (2007: 188) in Indonesian translation book by Edward Deci (1975: 23) defines intrinsic motivation:
“The activities that are intrinsically motivated is an activity for which no apparent reward except the activity itself. People seemed involves in a variety of activities for their own sake and not because they were directed at an extrinsic rewards … behaviors that are motivated intrinsically intended to realize the consequences of certain consequence with internal reward, it is a sense of competence and self-determination. “
Meanwhile, according to Sardiman (2014: 89) intrinsic motivation is, “motives that become active and with functions do not need to be stimulated from the outside because in every individual has motif to do something”. In other words, individuals are encouraged to behave towards certain the goal without a driving factor from the outside. Based on the above opinions, it can be said that intrinsic motivation is motivation that is included in a learning situation that comes from the needs and goals of the students themselves, or in other words the intrinsic motivation does not require stimuli from the outside but comes from the students themselves. Students who are intrinsically motivated can be seen from the activities seems to be diligent in working on learning tasks as they needed and they want to achieve the goal of truth learning. In other words, intrinsic motivation in terms of activities undertaken objectives was to achieve the objectives contained in the act itself (Sardiman, 2014: 90). Students who have intrinsic motivation showed a high involvement and activity in learning.
2). Extrinsic Motivation
According to Harmer (2007: 20), “Extrinsic motivation, the motivation that students bring into the classrooms from outside. Hammer explained that extrinsic motivation comes from outside of individuals who were taken into learning. Extrinsic motivation according to Harmer (2007: 20) different from intrinsic motivation because the motivation is the desire of students to learn very much influenced by their impulse or stimuli from the outside. Encouragement from the outside can be the praise, criticism, reward, punishment and reprimands from teachers. According Sardiman (2014: 90-91) extrinsic motivation is, ” the active motives and with function of stimulation or encouragement from the outside”. The most important part of this motivation is not the purpose of learning to know something but , they want to get a good score or mark, or to get the prize.
Extrinsic motivation is also needed in learning activities because not all students have a strong motivation from within himself to learn. Teachers play an important role in order to foster extrinsic motivation. The provision of extrinsic motivation should be tailored to the needs of students, because if students are given over extrinsic motivation then the students existing intrinsic motivation will be lost or gone. Extrinsic motivation can generate intrinsic
motivation, so that extrinsic motivation is indispensable in learning.
Dimyati (2013: 91) argues that “extrinsic motivation can turn into intrinsic motivation, when students realize the importance of learning, and he studied seriously without prompting others”. Extrinsic motivation is also needed by students in learning for their students changing circumstances possibility as well as other factors such as less interesting learning process for students. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation should supplement and strengthen each other so that the individual can achieve the goals that have been set.
5.8. How to increase Motivation
Efforts to increase the learning motivation can be done by the students themselves or carried out by teachers, using a variety of ways. Selection ways of increasing students’ motivation is done by teachers must be adapted to the characteristics of students and subjects being taught by the teacher. Students are motivated to learn and achieve different intrinsic are different with students who are highly motivated to learn and achieve strong extrinsic. On the other hand the factors the decline in learning motivation determine the selection of measures to be taken. Here are some ways that can be done by teachers to increase students’ motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Uno B. (2008: 34-37): 1). Expressions of appreciation verbally, for example; “Nice”, “amazing”, and others, 2). Using test scores as a trigger, 3). Generate curiosity, 4). Bring up something unexpected by the students, 5). Making an early stage in learning easier for students, 6). Using material known as an example of students in learning, 7). Using a unique link and unexpected to apply a concept and principles that have been understood, 8) .Requesting students to use things that have been studied previously, 9). Using simulations and games, 10). Giving students the chance to show his skills in front of the class, 11). Reduce the unpleasant consequences and the involvement of students in learning, 12). Understanding the social climate in schools, 13). Utilizing the appropriate authority of the teacher, 14). Combining a strong motive, 15). Clarifying the learning objectives to be achieved, 16). Formulating interim goals, 17). Informing the work that has been achieved, 18). Creating an atmosphere of healthy competition, 19). Developing competition with yourself, 20). Providing a positive example.
There are varied definitions of reading either from pegagogists or linguists. They have their own different definition.The Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics simply defines “reading” as follows: “ Reading is the process by which the meaning of written text is understood”. Reading is an active process , that is information sending process from the writer to the reader through written language. The writer is the sender of information, idea, thought, and the reader is receiver of message. (Snowling dan Hulme 2005:1), “ Reading is transferring process of written language to verbal and written language or to meaning.” While Tarigan (2008:7) added, “ Reading is a process done and used by reader to get the message which is going to be sent by writer through media, words or written language. Walker (2008: 7) agrees with the above definition and says” Reading is an active process in which readers shift between sources of information (what they know and what the text says), elaborate meaning and strategies, check their interpretation (revising when appropriate), and frame their understanding within a situational context”.
Reading is one of the important four language skills component after listening, speaking, and writing. Harmer (2003:215) states that “ Reading is often prelude to a speaking and writing”. Reading becomes important because lot of information written in the text form. By much reading, students can add and improve their vocabulary, and they will be more familiar with structure of English. When students read, they also process and transmit information to their brain, so when reading they have to focus on reading comprehension.
Grellet (1981:4) divides the two main reasons why we read, they are ; 1). Reading for pleasure. 2). Reading for information. Furher Grellet added that there are four ways of reading ; 1). Skimming, 2). Scanning, 3). Extensive Reading, dan 4). Intensive Reading. Skimming is quick reading to get the gist of the text, while Scanning is reading for specific information from the text. Extensive Reading is reading long text to get fun or pleasure, for example reading fiction and non fiction. Extensive reading is usually done by students or readers with the purpose of reading to get the pleasure or fun. Harmer (2007:99) defines extensive reading as follow , “ The term extensive reading refers to reading which students do often (but not exclusively) away from the classroom. They may read novels, web pages, newspapers, magaziness or any other reference material”. Intensive Reading is reading the text that is shorter than the extensive reading, to seek or obtain specific information or particular things, for example : textbooks, guidebooks dan handbooks, and usually done as an assignment, with the purpose to gain a general understanding of readings. Harmer defines intensive reading as follows,
“The term intensive reading, on the other hand, refers to detailed focus on the construction of reading texts which takes place usually (but not always) in classrooms.Teachers may ask students to look at extracts from magazines, poems, internet websites, novels, newspapers, plays and wide range of other text genres”. Harmer (2007:99-100).
Reading can be viewed as an interactive process between reader and text. In this process, the reader interacts dynamically with the text, and the reader tries to understand the meaning of a thing about knowledge used as the language of knowledge or systemic knowledge. Grabes (1991: 379) says that many researchers are trying to understand and explain the process of reading fluently by analyzing the process of reading into some component skills. The researchers propose six skill components or area of knowledge:
- Skills to recognize automatically, (Automatic recognition skills).
- Knowledge of vocabulary and structure (Vocabulary and Structural Knowledge )
- Knowledge of the composition of formal discourse (Formal discourse structure knowledge)
- Knowledge of the content (Content/world background knowledge)
- Knowledge or evaluation synthesis strategy (Synthesis and Evaluation Skills/Strategies)
- Knowledge of monitoring and metacognitive ( Metacognitive knowledge and skills monitoring )
5.10. Reading Skill
Reading skill is one of the four language skills. Reading is a process carried out by the reader to obtain the message or information on the author through the print media. “Reading is a complex skill, which is complicated, includes or involves a series of skills that are smaller. Such skills include: an introduction to the characters and punctuation marks, characters and their correlation punctuation with formal linguistic elements”. Tarigan (2008: 11). According to Carrel (1988, p.1), “Reading is an active process not a passive process. Reading is an active process on interaction with the introduction of the print media with the monitory of understanding to form meanings. Besides that, reading is meaningful interpretations on symbols written or verbal symbol “. Reading activity is not a simple activity, this activity involves the acquisition of the meaning of printed words. Reading activities require a high degree of muscle coordination. Readers not only see and recognize symbols, but also understand the meaning.
As well as very rapid advances in science and technology, someone must continually update their knowledge and skills. Knowledge and skills are largely acquired through reading. Reading skill is fundamental thing to master various fields of study. If the children at the beginning of school age do not immediately have the ability to read, then they will have many difficulties in studying the various fields of study in subsequent classes. Therefore, children must learn to read so that he can read to learn (Lerner, 1988: 349) in Abdurrahman (2010: 200)
5.11. Comprehension and Reading Comprehension
Here are some definitions of comprehension:
1). Comprehension is planned or deliberate thought and its meaning which is composed by
the interaction between text and reading. (Harris and Hodges, 1995).
2).Comprehension) is the process of extracting the meaning and composing simultaneously
through interaction and involvement with written language, (RAND Reading Study
3).Comprehension) is a process in which readers construct meaning by interacting with the
text through the combining prior knowledge and prior experience, the information in the
text, the opinion or idea of the reader to do with the text. (Pardo, 2004).
Grellet (1981: 3) suggests that reading comprehension is “Understanding a written text means extracting the required information from it as efficient as possible”. Thus Reading will be futile without understanding. (Westwood, 2001: 9) states that, “the comprehension must be the main focus of the teaching of reading students and not simply read and identify words or phrases that have been read or has been studied only in the reading” . In reading, the students have to discuss, reflect, ask, and answer questions about what they read or what has been read to them.
Reading comprehension also can not be separated and it has integrated relationship with other language skills. Grellet (1981: 8) states “Reading comprehension should not be separated from other skills”. The relationship between reading skills with other language skills according to Grellet as follows:
1. Reading and writing, for example when reading we also make summary, communicate the
essence of reading in writing and record.
2. Read and listen, for example, comparing the readings article with news in the media we
hear, using recording information to answer the problem and match our opinions with
3. Reading and speaking, for example, after reading we discus , argue, and give appreciation.
5.12. English Reading Ability
What is meant by the ability to read the English language is the ability to understand the content of reading or English text as a whole, to understand vocabulary, understand the structure of the language used in the text, and the most important is to understand questions or tasks related to text studies. This capability is obtained by students through learning activities that are programmed and controlled the so-called learning activities or instructional activities. Learning objectives have been determined by teachers and students. Students who succeed in learning is that students who succeed in achieving the purpose of learning or instructional purposes.
The success of the students in learning the English reading comprehension as described above can be represented directly by the score, or the reading comprehension achievement. Score or learning outcomes according to Romiszowski (1981: 217) in Abdurrahman, (2010: 38) as follows, “study result is outputs of a inputs processing system . The inputs of a system in the form of a variety of information, while the output is an act or performance “. In (Abdurrahman, 2010: 38), Romiszowski next divides learning outcomes into two groups; Knowledge and Skills.
The knowledge group is divided into four categories:
1. Knowledge of facts
2. Knowledge of procedures.
3. Knowledge of concepts
4. Knowledge of principles.
Skills group also consists of 4 categories;
1. Skills for thinking or cognitive
2. Skills to act or motoric skills.
3. Skills to react or behave
4. Skills interact.
Furthermore, Keller (1983: 39) in Abdurrahman (2010: 39) defines learning outcomes as follows:
“Learning outcomes is the actual achievement carried out by the children, while the effort is an act directed at the completion of the learning task. This means that the size of the students effort is an indicator of their motivation; while learning outcomes are influenced by the amount of work done by students “.
In teaching reading, teachers should put more emphasis on efforts to make students successful efforts and has the ability to answer questions, questions and tests about reading text. Nunan (2003: 79) states: “In many reading instruction programs, more emphasis and time may be placed on testing reading comprehension than on teaching readers how to comprehend. Monitoring comprehension is essential to successful reading “.
One way of teachers assess or measure students’ skills in reading comprehension is to assess the end result or the score of students in answering questions about reading. Another way to see or measure students’ reading ability is by using two categories: category accurate readers and fluent readers.
Teachers in the classroom also must strive for their students become fluent readers not speed readers. David Nunan states fluent readers by counting the numbers per minute. Nunan (2003: 76) says; “I define a fluent reader as one who reads at a rate of 200 words-per-minute with at least 70 percent comprehension“. In accordance with the category Nunan, students or the general reader who has a speed below 200 words per minute, have a category as readers who are not fluent or don’t have smoothly speed (not fluent reader).
5.13. The Use of Reading Race in Teaching Reading Comprehension .
In this study, the writer applied one type of cooperative learning model Team Games Tournament (TGT) with a combination of Reading Race for teaching reading comprehension. In the process of cooperative learning TGT type and reading race contains elements of the game, which is believed to be a positive influence on students. Reading race is one of reading activities done by the student by means of competition. When the reading progresses, the students do not hold and open a textbook. Teachers prepare the text that will be taught in a copy of the limited number, and teachers put it in a place or attached to the wall that is a bit far from the reach of students. When reading starts teachers instruct their students to run toward the sheet or text attached on the wall and soon read it.
Teaching Steps of cooperative learning TGT combined with reading race for teaching reading comprehension as follows:
- The teacher divides the class into groups of four to six students, and point the group leader to facilitate coordination.
- Teacher gives instruction to students that they will work in groups to complete reading assignments, answering questions about reading, and at the end of the session they would have tournament between groups.
- Teacher prepares reading material or a text to be studied in the form of photocopying by the two, and stick it on the wall which was a bit far from the reach of students. To order and the smooth process of learning and avoid excessive noise, teacher stick photocopying text in two different places and far apart.
- Teacher prepares questions about reading or text to be studied in the form of a photocopy of a number of existing groups. The question form covering the types of questions Wh-, Yes / No, the statement true or false (T / F), and multiple choice. The questions related to the text , and also functions to test students’ reading comprehension.
- The teacher asks one student representative from each group to be rushed to the text attached to the wall and read it carefully, with limited time (one to two minutes), and continue alternating with the members in the group.
- The teacher asks one representative student from each group who is reading the text to come back to the group, and begins to answer questions that have been provided, and ask the second student from each group to take turns rushed to the text attached, and then read it for one to two minutes, then return to the group to answer questions, and so on, followed by the third, fourth student, until all students get a turn or a chance to read, and until all groups finished answering all the questions in the task photocopied.
- Teacher limits the time to read and answer questions for 10 to 15 minutes. During the reading text and answering the questions, students run or compete with students from other groups, this activity is called reading race, that is running and racing to read and answer the questions that had been prepared teacher in each group.
- To check and examine all students comprehension about the text check, teacher distributes each student the same photocopying of reading text as a wall-mounted and photocopying the same question (the assignment sheet) and ask to write the answer and collect it. Before the questions and answers are collected, the teacher asks the students from the entire group to re-read the text, all questions and answers quickly and carefully in preparation for the race (tournament) between groups. Then each group is ready set up competitions or tournaments between groups.
- Teacher ends activity of reading race and continue with the activity of giving the same reading text attched on the wall with copy of multiple choice reading comprehension in group. Here students discuss the text, anwser the questions in group. Each student participates and engages in reading activity with his or her member of groups. Teacher limits the time for this activity, submit the task of reading comprehension , then teacher continue with tournament.
- When finished collecting answers, teacher starts the competition (tournament) by giving a quiz. The content of quiz is about the same with assignment sheet distributed, filled out, and submitted to teachers. Each group will get a score on the answer either from individual or group answers.
- In group, students must be solid, work in a team, to compete with other groups to answer questions or quizzes of the teacher, and the teacher gave a score on the correct answer.
- Teacher could divide quiz into two or three rounds, the first round of individual questions (only one student from each group representing answering quiz questions), the second round of questions to a group (group members are free to answer). The third round or the final round, that determine the winner between groups 1, 2, 3 of the existing group.
- Teacher appreciates or small prizes to the winners of I, II, and III in recognition of their efforts. And asks the students prepare to compete further in the next meeting to look for a the real winner or champion of groups
- Teacher closes the session with a concluding quiz contents of the text to check for student understanding and provide feedback.
- Teacher also assesses the ability to read each student by checking answers to the quiz (assignment sheet) have been collected. The answer each student will be the judgment or the ability of learning outcomes reading comprehension of students.
This research study was done in two private vocational high schools in Kota Bekasi.This study is a survey and experiments with the model treatment by level analysis . Type of test used is a two-way ANOVA. Experiments conducted on two groups or samples where each group treated different. The first group was taught by using cooperative learning, while the second group was taught using expository teaching methods (conventional).Writer conducted a series of treatment directly to the sample. The learning motivation data obtained from series of survey and quetioanaire were conducted to all samples either experiment class or controlled class. Each group is further divided into two categories according to their learning motivation, which is the group with high motivation the other category is the group with low motivation.
The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the possibility of mutual causality by using one or more experimental groups, one or more conditions of treatment and comparing the results with one or more of the control group were not subjected to treatment condition (Purwanto, 2004: 180). Experimental research is a research in which variables to be studied (the dependent variable) intentionally inflicted by manipulating its presence using the treatment (Purwanto, 2004: 180).
Furthermore, to determine whether there is influence of experimental outcome in the form of cooperative learning model treatment TGT (Team Game Tournament) with a combination of race reading and expository learning model (conventional), the writer conducted a test or evaluation of the ability to understand English reading comprehension test, on each sample class after the experiment is performed
To obtain the data required related with research problem, the writer conducted a series of learning English experiments in four classes (students of private high schools grade XI), two classes defined as a class experiment and two classes as a class control, using two models of learning cooperative learning model TGT (Team Game Tournament ) with a combination of race reading and expository learning model (conventional). The design used in this study is a 2 x 2 factorial design.
- RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Research Data Description
The research data obtained in this study are the research data with two factors, namely learning model (A) and learning motivation (B). Each factor has a sub factor called level. For learning model (A) there are two levels, namely the model of cooperative learning TGT (A1) and the conventional method of expository (A2). The second factor is the learning motivation (B) with two levels: high learning motivation (B1) and low learning motivation (B2).
1. Reading comprehension data of students who used Cooperative Learning type TGT (YA1).
The reading capability or test scores obtained from reading comprehension test after performed using cooperative learning model treatment type TGT with a combination of reading race. The total sample respondents is 40 students. The lowest English reading comprehension score is 55, the highest score is 90, the average is 71.13, the median is 70, the mode of 75, and a standard deviation is 8.510. From this data, it is indicated that the English reading comprehension ability taught by using cooperative learning model of private vocational students in District Mustikajaya, Kota Bekasi is quite good with the average score is 71.13. The histogram and frequency polygon shows normal distribution
2. Reading comprehension data of students who used Expository Learning type (YA2).
The reading capability or test scores obtained from reading comprehension test after performed using expository learning model treatment with total sample respondents is 40 students. The lowest English reading comprehension score is 35, the highest score is 80, the average is 60.63, the median is 60, the mode of 75, and a standard deviation is 12.669. From this data, it is indicated that English reading comprehension ability taught by using cooperative learning model of private vocational students in District Mustikajaya, Kota Bekasi has enough score with the average score is 60.63. The histogram and frequency polygon shows normal distribution
3. Reading comprehension data of students with has high learning motivation (YB1).
The reading capability or test scores obtained from reading comprehension test of students with high learning motivation with total sample respondents of 40 students, the lowest English reading comprehension score is 55, the highest score is 90, the average is 72.50, the median is 75, the mode of 75, and a standard deviation is 8.086. From this data it is indicated that the ability to understand the English reading of students of private vocational students in District Mustikajaya, Kota Bekasi with high learning motivation is enough good with the average score 72.50. The histogram and frequency polygon shows normal distribution.
4. Reading comprehension data of students with low learning motivation (YB2).
The reading capability or test scores obtained from reading comprehension test of students with low learning motivation with total sample respondents of 40 students, the lowest English reading comprehension score is 35, the highest score is 75, the average is 59,3750, the median is 60, the mode of 65, and a standard deviation is 11.39. From this data, it is indicated that English reading comprehension ability of students of private vocational students in District Mustikajaya, Kota Bekasi with low learning motivation has enough score with the average score 59.3750. The histogram and frequency polygon shows normal distribution.
5. Group Summary data of A1B1, A1B2, A2B1, A2B2.
The Summary data of the research in accordance with the following study design, data showed that the reading comprehension ability of students taught using a model of cooperative learning type TGT and have a high learning motivation is composed of 20 students had an average score of 75.25 and standard deviation of 7.691. The reading comprehension reading ability of students using cooperative learning model and TGT and have low learning motivation with average score 67.00 has a standard deviation of 7.327.
The reading comprehension ability of students taught using expository teaching model and have a high motivation to learn is composed of 20 students had an average score of 69.75 and a standard deviation of 7.691. while The reading comprehension ability of students taught using expository teaching model and has a low learning motivation consists of 20 students had an average value of 51.75 and a standard deviation of 9.497.
- CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Based on the results of the research hypothesis test, writer concludes as follows:
- There is a significant effect of cooperative learning model on reading comprehension ability of private vocational high school students in Mustikajaya, Bekasi. This is evidenced by the acquisition sig. = 0.000 <0.05 and Fo = 32.846.
- There is a significant influence of learning motivation to reading comprehension ability of private vocational students in Mustikajaya, Bekasi. This is evidenced by the acquisition sig. = 0.000 <0.05 and Fo = 52.566.
- There is a significant interaction effect of cooperative learning and learning motivation on the reading comprehension ability of private vocational high school students in Mustikajaya, Bekasi. This is evidenced by the acquisition sig. = 0.009 <0.05 and Fo = 7.252.
Based on the conclusions of the research ,writer suggests :
- Cooperative Learning Model type TGT with a combination of reading race can be an alternative model of learning that affect the reading comprehension ability of students in specific term and all activities in learning English in general.
- Teachers should know the students’ motivation, so teacher can give proper attention to each individual of student and provide meaningful learning experiences to them in the way of individual work, group discussions, class discussions, competitions between groups according to the stages in the reading comprehension learning.
- On cooperative learning type TGT with a combination of race reading, teachers should be aware of students’ motivation to play an active role in the negotiations, to get answers and alternative solutions to the problem. By the implementation of cooperative learning model, teacher will increase students learning motivation. Increasing student motivation means increasing success in learning, especially English, and generally all subjects.
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