THE EFFECT OF LEARNING MEDIA AND LEARNING STYLE TOWARD ENGLISH STUDYING RESULT
(Experiment On Junior High Schools’ Students In Kabupaten Bekasi)
Abdul Muhid Murtadho
Lecturer of STIBA IEC Jakarta
abdulmoehid@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
This research was held to check out the effect of learning media and learning style toward English studying result for the second grade students of the Junior High School. This Research was held at SMP 5 Setu – Bekasi and SMP 12 Tambun – Bekasi. The writer took 165 students as sample for research. The research instrument is the questionnaire of Learning Style and the teaching prosess by using different Learning Media (Multimedia Based and Conventional Based). The methodolgy used by the writer is survey dan experiment which is used treatment anylisi method by level. The type of testing used is Anova Dua Arah. From this research writer found that there is a significant correlation between Learning Media toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtanined of Fo = 11,070 and Sig. = 0,000 < 0,05. There is a significant correlation between Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtanined of Fo = 8,982 dan Sig. = 0,000 < 0,05. There is not any significant interaction effect between Learning Media and Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtanined of Fo = 0,043 dan Sig. = 0,958 > 0,05.
Key Words : Learning Media, Learning Style, English studying Result, Two Ways Anova
- Introduction
- Background
English ability is developed in four aspects. These skills include mastery of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Unfortunately the results of studtents’ English learning result in Indonesia is still low, especially in Junior High School. Therefore, cooperation is needed from some parties to improve the learning achievement of English as an effort to achieve the goals of national education.
Based on direct observation in the field, the result of learning English in the Secondary Junir High School Students in Bekasi Regency is still low, the results achieved are still below the Minimum Passing Criteria (KKM) established by the school. Learning outcomes are the results of their formative test exams. Learning media is one means of supporting the teaching and learning process, improving the effectiveness of teaching and learning, and increasing the motivation and concentration learners in learning.
An understanding of the learning styles of each individual in the classroom, will show how appropriate treatment is knowing each student needs. Individuals can be different with visual, auditorial, kinestetic / somastis modalities have different characteristics in their learning styles. The research was conducted on grade VIII students of SMP Negeri in Bekasi Regency.
- Objectives
1. The Effect of learning media on English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.2. The Effect of learning styles on English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.3. The Interaction of learning media and learning style toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.
- 3. Theoretical Framework
3.1. Learning Media
Arsyad (2007: 3) says the word media comes from the Latin word “medius” which literally means ‘middle’, ‘intermediary’ or ‘introduction’. Gerlach & Ely (1971) says that the media when understood in broad outline is human, material, or event that builds conditions that enable students to acquire knowledge, skills, or attitudes.Meanwhile, Gagne and Briggs (1975) in Arsyad (implicitly) said that instructional media includes tools that are physically used to convey the content of teaching materials. Thus it can be concluded that the learning media is anything that can be used to channel the message from the sender to the receiver so that it can aroused the students’ thoughts, feelings, attention and interests in such a way that the learning process takes place. Media is an integral part of the educational process of learning in school so that becomes a component that must be mastered by professional teachers.
3.2. Learning Style
Knowing Learning styles is one way to find out that the learning process will be easy and fun. Implementation of learning styles in teaching and learning process is very necessary because it is closely related to the environment and learning atmosphere to optimize the learning activities of students who are seen as reliable indicators assess the effectiveness of teaching.Experts state the learning style in various senses. According to Hamzah B. Uno (2010: 180) learning style shows the fastest and best way for an individual to absorb information from outside himself. Suparman (2010: 63) says Learning styles are the way one tends to be chosen to receive information. In addition Sarasin also states that learning styles are specific behavior patterns in receiving new information and developing new skills, as well as the process of storing new information or skills. Meanwhile, according to DePorter & Hernacki, “learning style is a combination of how it absorbs, and then organizes and processes information. From the various descriptions of the above descriptions, it can be concluded that learning styles are learning habits and ways in which individuals choose to master a learning process.
- Type of Learning Style
Visual-auditory-kinesthetic learning style is often called the learning style of VAK. Suparman (2010: 64), describes the characteristics of visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning styles and teacher strategies to facilitate the teaching and learning process. The description is as follows: 1) Visual StyleThis learning style is generally referred to as an observational learning style. This learning style relies heavily on the sense of sight (eye) in the learning process. Children of this type are attracted to colors, shapes, and life images. 2) AuditoryThis learning style is usually referred to as a listener. Children who have this learning style generally maximize the use of the senses of the listener (ear) in the process of capturing and absorbing information. Generally they pose more interest in voices and words.3) KinestheticThis style of learning is usually referred to as the driving force. This is because students with this learning style always use and use the limbs in the learning process or in an effort to understand something.
3.3. Studying Result
Studying Result are the ultimate goal of learning activities in schools. Studying Result are closely related to learning objectives and processes. It is mentioned Nana Sudjana (2005) that learning and teaching as a process contains three distinguishable elements, namely instructional (instructional), teaching (learning) process, and studying Result
- Methodolgy
The method used in this research is survey and experiment with method of treatment analysis by level. Type of test used is Two Ways Anova. Experiments were conducted on two groups / samples in which each group was treated with different treatments. The first group was taught using multimedia-based learning media, while the second group was taught using conventional learning media. Each group is subdivided into three according to student learning style, that is group having visual, auditorial, and kinesthetic learning style.
Research design is described as follow :
Table 4.1. Research Design
Table 4.2 Number of School Students Members of Affordable Population
No | School Name | Location | Number of students |
1 | SMP Negeri 5 Setu | Setu, Kab.Bekasi | 431 |
2 | SMP Negeri 12 Tambun | Tambun Selatan, Kab Bekasi | 428 |
Total | 859 |
Table 4.3 Result of Sample selection
No | School Name | Experiment Class | Number of students | Control
Class |
Number of students |
1 | SMP Negeri 5 Setu | Kelas VIIIa | 42 | Kelas VIIIb | 41 |
2 | SMP Negeri 12 Tambun | Kelas VIIIa | 43 | Kelas VIIIb | 40 |
Table 3.5. Number of Members for Each Group
Level | Treatment : Learning Media (A) | |||
Learning Style (B) | Multimedia based (A1) | Conventional based (A2) | ||
Visual (B1) | SMPN 5 Setu | : 10 respondent | SMPN 5 Setu | : 10 respondent |
SMPN 12 Tambun | : 10 respondent | SMPN 12 Tambun | : 10 respondent | |
Auditory (B2) | SMPN 5 Setu | : 10 respondent | SMPN 5 Setu | : 10 respondent |
SMPN 12 Tambun | : 10 respondent | SMPN 12 Tambun | : 10 respondent | |
Kinesthetic (B3) | SMPN 5 Setu | : 10 respondent | SMPN 5 Setu | : 10 respondent |
SMPN 12 Tambun | : 10 respondent | SMPN 12 Tambun | : 10 respondent | |
Total respondent |
60 Respondent |
60 Respondent |
The steps for testing or verifying the hypothesis are as follows:a. Create a table for the grouping of data required for testing Two-Way Anova.Table 3.6. Two Ways Anova Design
Level
Learning Style (B) |
Treatment : Learning Media (A) | YB | |
Multimedia (A1) | Konvetional (A2) | ||
Visual (B1) | Y11 | Y21 | YB1 |
Auditory (B2) | Y12 | Y22 | YB2 |
Kinesthetic (B3) | Y13 | Y23 | YB3 |
YA | YA1 | YA2 | Y-total |
- Create descriptive statistic t_{Table }for each data set. This descriptive statistic table contains the prices for each of the elements required in ANOVA as follows:
Table 3.7. Descriptive statistic table for Two Ways Anova
A-1 | A-2 | ∑B | |
B-1 |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
B-2 |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
B-3 |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑A |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
∑Y
∑Y^{2} |
c. Create a two-way ANOVA summary table
- Deciding db, JK > RJK, Fh dan Ft
In practice, SPSS 17.00 program assistance will be used for testing the hypothesis, ie, by testing of Two Way Anova. In the Two-Way Anova test with the SPSS, the output of interest is the Sig column value in the Tests of Between Subjects Effects table as shown in Table 3.8
Table 3.8 Result test of Two Ways Anova
Tests of Between Subjects Effects
Dependent Variabel : English Studying Result
Source | Type III Sum of Squares | Df | Mean Squares | F | Sig |
Corrected Metode | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
Intercept | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
Metode_Pembelajaran | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
Gaya_Belajar | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
Metode_Pembelajaran * Gaya Belajar | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
Error | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
Total | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
Corrected Total | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. | ………. |
- RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Data Summary of Research Results
Table 4.1. Statistic Deskriptif Summary
Descriptive Statistics | ||||
Dependent Variable: English Studying Result | ||||
Learning Media | Learning Style | Mean | Std. Deviation | N |
Multimedia | Visual | 88.50 | 6.258 | 10 |
Auditory | 84.50 | 6.433 | 10 | |
Kinesthetic | 77.00 | 11.106 | 10 | |
Total | 83.33 | 9.316 | 30 | |
Conventional | Visual | 79.00 | 8.433 | 10 |
Auditory | 74.50 | 9.560 | 10 | |
Kinesthetic | 68.50 | 6.687 | 10 | |
Total | 74.00 | 9.135 | 30 | |
Total | Visual | 83.75 | 8.717 | 20 |
Auditory | 79.50 | 9.445 | 20 | |
Kinesthetic | 72.75 | 9.931 | 20 | |
Total | 78.67 | 10.287 | 60 |
Table 4.2. Statistical Description by Research Design
B |
Stat | A | Total | |
A_{1} | A_{2} | |||
B_{1} |
n | 10 | 10 | 20 |
88.50 | 79.00 | 83.75 | ||
s | 6.258 | 8.433 | 8.717 | |
B_{2} |
n | 10 | 10 | 20 |
84.50 | 74.50 | 79.50 | ||
s | 6.433 | 9.560 | 9.445 | |
B_{3} |
n | 10 | 10 | 20 |
77.00 | 68.50 | 72.75 | ||
s | 11.106 | 6.687 | 9.931 | |
Total |
n | 30 | 30 | 60 |
83.33 | 74.00 | 78.67 | ||
s | 9.316 | 9.135 | 10.287 |
a. Test of Data Analysis Requirements Prior to the hypothesis testing, firstly testing the requirements analysis that includes testing the normality and homogeneity.
- Normality test
Table 4.3. Data of Normality test
One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test | ||
Hasil Belajar Bahasa Inggris | ||
N | 60 | |
Normal Parameters^{a,b} | Mean | 78.67 |
Std. Deviation | 10.287 | |
Most Extreme Differences | Absolute | .164 |
Positive | .139 | |
Negative | -.164 | |
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z | 1.272 | |
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) | .078 | |
a. Test distribution is Normal. | ||
b. Calculated from data. |
- Homogenity test
Table 4.4. Data of Homogenity test
Levene’s Test of Equality of Error Variances^{a} | |||
Dependent Variable: English Studying Result | |||
F | df1 | df2 | Sig. |
1.508 | 5 | 54 | .203 |
Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups. | |||
a. Design: Intercept + A + B + A * B |
3) Hypothesis Testing Table 4.5. Research of Hypothesis Testing
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects | |||||
Dependent Variable: Hasil Belajar Bahasa Inggris | |||||
Source | Type III Sum of Squares | df | Mean Square | F | Sig. |
Corrected Model | 2543.333^{a} | 5 | 508.667 | 7.424 | .000 |
Intercept | 371306.667 | 1 | 371306.667 | 5419.070 | .000 |
A | 1306.667 | 1 | 1306.667 | 19.070 | .000 |
B | 1230.833 | 2 | 615.417 | 8.982 | .000 |
A * B | 5.833 | 2 | 2.917 | .043 | .958 |
Error | 3700.000 | 54 | 68.519 | ||
Total | 377550.000 | 60 | |||
Corrected Total | 6243.333 | 59 | |||
a. R Squared = .407 (Adjusted R Squared = .352) |
Based on the above data, the proposed research hypothesis can beanswered. The explanation of the above table is as follows:a. First Hypothesis : There is a significant correlation between LearningMedia toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.b. Second Hypothesis : There is a significant correlation between Learning Style toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.c. Third Hypothesis : There is not any significant interaction effect between Learning Media and Learning Style toward English studying result for VIII grade students of Junior High School in Kab.Bekasi.
- CONCLUSION
Based on the results of hypothesis testing research, the following conclusions can be drawn:
- There is a significant correlation between Learning Media toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtained of Fo = 11,070 and = 0,000 < 0,05.
- There is a significant correlation between Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtained of Fo = 8,982 dan Sig. = 0,000 < 0,05.
- There is not any significant interaction effect between Learning Media and Learning Style toward English studying result. It was proved by the obtained of Fo = 0,043 dan Sig. = 0,958 > 0,05
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