Suhendar, S.S, M.Pd.
Lecturer of STIBA IEC Jakarta
The objective of this research is to find out (1) The effects of interpersonal communication skill and vocabulary mastery jointly toward student’s speaking skill at private universities in East Jakarta; (2) The effect of interpersonal communication skill towards student’s speaking skill at private university in East Jakarta; (3) The effect of vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill at private university in East Jakarta. In connection to which, research methodology used by the researcher is explanatory survey with quantitative approach through correlation method. The researcher concluded that population is collected from a number of groups interest to the researcher, a number of group which researcher would like to make the results of the study to be reported. As for the sample of which is undertaken by random sampling and the samples thereof are 40 people. Finally, the research findings are: (1) There are significant effects of interpersonal communication skill and vocabulary mastery jointly towards student’s speaking skill at private university in East Jakarta. It is proved by Faccount= 25.835 > F table (0,05,2,37) = 3,252, and sig = 0.000 < 0.05. 2) (2) There is significant effect of student’s interpersonal communication skill towards student’s speaking skill at private university in East Jakarta. It is proved by taccount= 4.436 > ttable 2.024, and sig = 0.000 < 0.05. (3) There is significant effect of vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill at private university in East Jakarta. It is proved by taccount= 3.250>ttable 2.024, and sig = 0.002 < 0.05.
Language is the most important thing for people as a means of communication. It is basically a means of both oral and written communication. It is important to learn English because it is an international language which is used in many countries over the world and widely used in many sectors such as information, trade, education, etc.
Since English is a foreign language in our country, most students of university are not familiar with it. They use English more frequent only inside the class and less frequent outside the class. Whereas, students have limited time to learn English in class, and they still do not have enough encouragement to practice English outside the class in order to get familiar with English. This case brings a problem that make university students have difficulties to communicate in English. This study will analyse the causes that make the students difficult to communicate in English and suggest some solutions that can overcome the difficulties.
The first cause that makes the students difficult in speaking English is that the environment does not support the students of university to speak English frequently. The environment here means the people outside the class. Those people may think that the students just want to show off when they speak English for daily conversation. The response that the students get makes them loose their self-confidence to improve their speaking. Since the students do not want to be rejected by the people around them, so they use their native language in daily conversation. That condition makes the students of university unable to communicate in English fluently outside the class.
The second cause is problem with grammar. English always deals with reference of time while Indonesian does not have one. Moreover, there are singular and plural forms that the students have to distinguish and still many forms that have to be learned. Most students of university are very easy to get confused with English grammar, while grammar is very needed to form a correct sentence. If the students of university do not have grammar mastery, of course they will not be able to produce sentences that is grammatically correct. Realizing that the grammar students have is very weak, so they feel embarrassed when they want to produce English sentences orally.
Now, English is an international language. Even technology and working world use English. It is believed that the students want to be the winner in working world competition that is getting tight day by day. One of the conditions that the students must require is having the ability to speak English fluently. This skill will be their plus point in facing the working world. From now on, the students of university have to try hard to overcome their difficulties to speak English fluently.
There are two ways to encourage students to overcome their problem. The first one is such a way for the teacher to do. It is considered necessary for the teacher to force the students only to speak English during the class. The teacher may fine the students every time they speak their native language. The teacher himself must be able to convince his students to be brave to speak English, it does not matter if they have very bad grammar. Just say whatever the students want to say. And the teacher must convince his students that make errors is a normal thing in learning. This way will raise students’ confidence to try to speak English. It will be better if the teacher does not give correction every time his students make errors, but he should give feedback and give explanation for every error after the students finish their speech.
The second solution is for the students themselves. They can have an English conversation club that consists of their own classmates. They can share and talk about anything in English during that time. In this club, they can learn together. Students of university can correct each other without feeling embarrassed. English will become students’ routine by doing that activity.
Every problem can be solved, likewise the problem to speak English fluently that students of university have. Even though the problem seems as students’ problem, but in fact teachers also play an important role in solving this problem. Students’ difficulties to communicate in English must be solved as soon as possible considering their needs in facing the working world. In conclusion, by forcing the students only to speak English during the class and having conversation club will solve their difficulties to speak English.
Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of study. During conducting interpersonal communication there is message sending and message receiving. This can be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal communication can be made when the message senders and the message receivers understand the message.
Linguistic is primarily the study of language that is divided into three broad aspects including the form of language, the meaning of language, and the context or function of language. The first aspect, form is based on the words and sounds of language and uses the words to make sentences that make sense. The second aspect, meaning, focuses on the meaning and significance of the words and sentences that human beings have put together. The third aspect, function, or context is based on recognizing the meaning of the words and sentences being said and using them to understand why a person is communicating.
Based on the description above, the writer is interested to do the research by choosing the title “The effects of interpersonal communication skill and vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill at private universities in East Jakarta”.
The objectives of this research are to find out the effects of interpersonal communication skill and vocabulary mastery jointly towards student’s speaking skill at private universities in East Jakarta, the effect of interpersonal communication skill towards student’s speaking skill at private universities in East Jakarta and the effect of vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill at private universities in East Jakarta.
3. Theoretical Framework
- The nature of Skill
Department of Health (2001:45) said skill is an ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills). Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997:179), Skill is the ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well.
Furthermore skill can be theoretically said as the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self-motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.
Based on the above theories it can be concluded that Skill is the ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well.
- The nature of Speaking
The whole of human history is built upon communication. From the first story told in prehistoric times through the mass media of today, verbal communication has built the foundation of who we are, where we came from, and what we hope to become. Throughout time, many orators, philosophers, and educators have tried to capture the essence of human communication. Although a true understanding of the complexity of communication takes years of examination, it has tried to offer a brief highlight of some of the major contributors.
Speaking is a very important part in studying English. People need to speak in order to communicate one each other and make a good communication. When someone was born, he learns how to speak, and speaking can make him communicate or contact with other person. According to Yorkey (1990;4), speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously. 1) The teacher role is becoming important for students later. There are many keys to support speaking skill by listening cassette, watching TV, Watching film, practicing with foreigners, practicing with partners. In judging whether students are speaking in correct statements. There are two criteria which the teacher must take : -The students have to understand the meaning of words that they use and associate them into the objects of their represent. –The students have to pronounce the words properly in order to arise some perception and they understand each other. (Richard C Yorkey, 1990:4).
If students want to be able to speak fluently in English, they need to be able pronounce us correctly, use appropriate stress and intonation patterns and speak in connected speech. Speakers of English – especially where it is a second language – will have to be able to speak in a range different genres and situations, and they will be have to be able to use a range of conversational and conversational-strategies. They will need to be able to survive in typical functional exchanges too.
Students are often reluctant to speak because they are shy and are not predisposed to expressing themselves in front of other people, especially when they are being asked to give personal information or opinions. Frequently, too, there is a worry about speaking badly and therefore losing face in front of their classmates. In such situation there are number things we can do to help. The teacher role is becoming important for student later. There are many keys to support speaking skill by listening cassette, watching TV, watching Film, practicing with foreigners, practicing with partner.
Speaking is a one of language skill in learning language. Speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously. People need to speak in order to communicate with the other people and make a good communication well. We have to learn how to speak, and speaking can make us communicate or contact with other person.
Based on the above theories, it can be concluded that Speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously in order to communicate with the other people and make a good communication well.
- Speaking Skill
Speaking is a form of communication (Jone, 1989: 14). It means that speaking a kind of communication which is conveyed orally. It is certainly that the process of it involves two sides, the speaker and the listener who may function interchangeably. When the speaker produces utterances sent to the listener, he/she may function as a speaker. Otherwise, when the listener gets turn to give responses, he/she may function as a speaker. In short, may be said that speaking has the similar meaning to oral communication.
Brown says that conversations are collaborative activities as participants (speaker and listener) engage in a process of negotiation of meaning, (Brown, 2001:268). Meanwhile, Brown and Yule say that in the production of speech each speaker needs to speak individually and ideally. He needs someone to listen to this speaking and to respond to him, (Brown and Yule, 1997; 25)
In relation to building social relationship, everyone owns his goal for that reason. One may speak when he intends to discuss something. Harmer (2006: 46-7) states that there are. This implies that some reasons why people are involved in conversation. First they want to say something. This implies that when there is something to tell, they need to speak; otherwise, he will not speak. Second, they have communicative purpose. Third, they intend to select words. It means speakers in general have certain capacity to produce new and appropriate sentences.
Richards and Renandya (2002: 201) support Hammer’s views, which emphasize that one will make a social relationship through discussion forum. In this case, he will express his own ideas and persuade others or clarify information. Boardman (1979; 1) states that the language used by a speaker is to show how to ask information, to suggest, to prohibit, to express ideas, etc. In the context of English learning, students are encourage to be able to express themselves in target language, to overcome basic skills of interaction such as mutual greetings, expressions of thanks and apology, and to express his needs such as asking for information (Brown and Yule, 1988: 27).
From the explanation, it is likely to have the same ideas on speaking reasons, namely the intention to deliver information to other people and to entertain and make other people feel happy as well as to express ideas. In English speaking situation, a student may speak with his classmate to convey some information and his ideas. A student also speaks when a lecture asks him some questions.
Considering some ideas above on the English speaking ability and necessity of using English, it is concluded that English speaking ability is one’s capacity of producing ideas orally to others through learning process expressed in English acceptable and appropriate ways to maintain social relationship.
Samovar and Mills (1972:62) further elaborate explanation provided by Finochiaro and Bonomo; that is, speaking as a two-way communication process between speaker and listener. They suggest that spoken communication does not only require speaking skills but also mutual understanding between speaker and listener. They define spoken communication as follows: 1) ‘communication involves more than one people, 2) communication aims at obtaining responses, 3) ideas and feeling are communication materials that need to be specially planned to achieve the intended objectives, 4) communication is a symbolical process, 5) communication is a real process in life that depends end how we adapt to our surrounding properly, 6) response of the receiver or listener is the test to effectiveness of communication activities. Lack of listener’s response means no communication exist.
Papalia (1983:15) states that speaking skills is not solely dependent on linguistics, competence but also on understanding of culture, strategic function and use of language in interactions in social contexts since success in acquiring communicative competence is dependent on how the components are integrated. For this, sauvignon (1983:21) suggest that communicative competence in the teaching of English needs to be develop through more provision of time for listening activities, providing students with the greatest possible opportunities to obtain responses, considering student’s grammatical mistakes as something natural in the teaching-learning process and performing activities within contexts that include their feelings and involvement as a whole.
M. Bygate in Spoisky (193:63) suggest that speaking skills have two integrated elements; that is, relative accuracy and relative fluency. Accuracy is one dimension related to clarity, appropriateness and correctness of certain message that are related to interlocutors and norms. Success of a message is influenced by selection, formulation and comprehensibility. This dimension covers use of grammar, pronunciation of vocabulary, selection of expression, discourse markers and register.
According to Jone speaking is a form of communication. It means that speaking is a kind of communication which conveyed orally. It is certainly that the process of it involves two sides, that speaker produces literacies sent to the listener, he/she may function as a speaker. Otherwise, when the listener, gets turn to give responses, he/she my function as a speaker in short , it may be said that speaking has the similar meaning to oral communication.
Jone adds that during communication what one says should be conveyed in and effective way. How one says has the same importance as what one says . The concept produced by a speaker should be delivered in a proper, polite and acceptable way in order that the listener feels comfortable to what the speaker says. An important concept will be less important it is delivered in impolite that may threaten Interlocutor’s face or the new may be different if a less important than concept is sent politely to the listener.
Why a speaker creates communication with a listener, it is certainly said to have a basic assumption. Celce – Murcia and Olshtsin, who occupy oral interaction as speaking say that and any oral interaction the speaker want to communicate ideas, feelings, attitudes, and information to the hearer or wants to employ speech that relates to the situation. The main objective of the speaker is to go understood. And for the messages to be properly interpreted by the hearers. The two also use speech production referring to speaking explain that speech production is produced on-line and that is prototypically reciprocal (feedback ) in nature. The reciprocity develops during the on-going negotiation of meaning between the speaker and listener.
A similar view is presented by brown , who mentions speaking as conversation . He says that conversations are collaborative as participants (Speaker and Listener) engage in a process of negotiation of meaning . Meanwhile, Brown and Yule using the production of speech to refer to the term of speaking say that in the production of speech each speaker needs to speak individually and ideally . He needs someone to listen to his speaking and to respond to him.
Learning from the descriptions above, there are substance underlining them, i e : the term of speaking end definition of speaking . The term of speaking is used interchanged by with the term of “oral communication”, “oral interaction”, “conversation”, or “ Speech production”. Based on the evidence the researcher occupies the term of “ Oral communication”, “Oral interaction”, “conversation”, or “speech production as speaking. Men while, speaking may be defined as a collaborative activity between a speaker and listener is in which the two parties want to convey and negotiate thoughts, feelings or messages in a special reciprocal situation underlined by a mutual understanding.
Based on the explanation, it can be concluded that speaking skill is the ability of student’s communication which involve various skills to decide on when to speak; what form to use; which words are suitable in form and meaning; used of sequences of sounds, voice, tone and form; convincing one feels the need to speak properly in the right situation; and correct positioning of tongue and lips to produce linguistic sounds.
- The nature of Communication
Definition of communication in general can be seen from two points of views, based on Uchjana (1992:3) :
- Etymologic Definition
The word communication is based on Latin language, communication, and sourced also from word communist which means same. So, communication takes place when between people involved there are similarities of meaning on a matter that is communicated.
- Terminological Definition
Communication means delivery of a statement by someone to another person.
The term communication, according to Rogers as quoted by Cangara (1998:20) are defined as: “Process in which an idea is transferred from the source to one recipient or more, with the intention of to change their behaviour”. Whereas according to Muhammad (2005:5), communication is: “Exchange of verbal and non-verbal messages between the sender with the receiver in order to change behaviour”
Based on the above theories, it can concluded that communication is a process of shipment and delivery of messages in the form of verbal and nonverbal by one person to another to change attitudes, opinions, or behaviour, either directly in oral, or indirectly through some media. Good communication must be accompanied by a bond of understanding between both parties (sender and receiver), so that what is communicated can be understood and implemented.
- Interpersonal Communication
Contextually, interpersonal communication is described as a communication between two individuals or a few individuals, which interact with each other, give each other feedback to each other. However, providing contextual definition alone is not enough to describe the interpersonal communication because every interaction between an individual with other individuals vary.
Arni Muhammad (2005: 159) states that: ”Interpersonal communication is the process of exchanging information between a person with at least one other or usually between two people who can immediately know it back”. While, Mulyana (2000: 73) states that: ”Interpersonal communication is communication that only two people, such as husband and wife, two colleagues, two close friends, teachers, students and so on”.
Therefore, it can be concluded that interpersonal communication is the process of delivering information, certain thoughts and attitudes between two or more people that a change of the message either as communicant and communicator with a view to achieving mutual understanding, regarding the issues to be discussed are ultimately expected behavioural changes.
From the definition of interpersonal communication that has been described above, can be identified several components that must be present in the interpersonal communication. According to Suranto A. W (2011: 9), components of interpersonal communication are:
Communicator are people who have the need to communicate, or the desire to share its own internal state, both emotional and informational with others. This requirement may be a desire to gain social recognition to the desire to influence the attitudes and behaviour of others. In the context of interpersonal communication communicators are individuals who create, formulate, and convey the message.
Encoding is an internal activity of the communicator in creating a message via election symbols of verbal and non-verbal, which is based on the rules of grammar, as well as tailored to the characteristics of the communicant.
Message is the result of encoding. Message is a set of symbols of both verbal and non-verbal, or a combination of both, which represent special circumstances communicators to be delivered to the other party. In a communication event, the message is a very important element. That’s the message sent by the sender to be received and interpreted by the communicant.
Channel is a physical means of delivering a message from the source to the receiver or connecting people to other people in general. In the context of interpersonal communication, the use of media channels or simply because circumstances do not allow face-to-face communication.
Communicant is someone who accept, understand, and interpret the message. In the process of interpersonal communication, the receiver is active, in addition to receiving messages do anyway interpretation process and provide feedback. Based on feedback from this communicant a communicator will be able to determine the effectiveness of communication that have been made, whether the meaning of the message can be taken jointly by both parties that the communicator and the communicant.
Decoding is internal activities within the receiver. Through the senses, the recipient gets the kinds of data in the form of “raw” form of words and symbols that must be converted into experiences that implies. Gradually beginning of the process of sensation, which is the process by which sensory stimuli capture.
Response is decisions made by the receiver to be used as a response to the message. The response can be either positive, neutral, or negative. Positive response if desired according to the communicator. Neutral means that the response does not accept or reject the desire communicator. Said to be a negative response if the response is contrary to that desired by the communicator.
Disturbance or noise or barrier are variegated, therefore it must be defined and analysed first. Noise can occur in any of the components of the communication system. Noise is anything that disturbs or create a chaotic delivery and reception of messages, including physical causes.
- Communication Context
Communication always occurs in a particular context, there are at least three dimensions of space, time, and value. Space context refers to the concrete and real environment where communication, such as room, yard and street. Context time refers to the time when the communication is carried out, for example: morning, noon, afternoon, evening. Context values, including social and cultural values ??that affect the atmosphere of communication, such as: customs, home situation, association norms, ethics, manners, and so forth.
Interpersonal communication is a process of exchange of meaning among those who communicate with each other. People who communicate with each other that is the source and the receiver. Source encoding to create and formulate using channel. Receiver do the decoding to understand the message, and then put forward a response or feedback. Unavoidable that the communication process is always associated with a particular context, for example, the context of time. Barriers can occur at the source, encoding, message, channel, decoding, as well as on the recipient.
Arni Muhammad (2005: 168) states that interpersonal communication has several objectives, they are:
- Finding Yourself
One of the purposes of interpersonal communication is to find a person’s personality. When we engage in interpersonal encounter with another person we learned a great deal about ourselves and others. Interpersonal communication provides the opportunity for us to talk about what we like, or about ourselves. Is very interesting and exciting when discussing the feelings, thoughts, and behaviour of our own. By talking ourselves with others, we provide an outstanding source of feedback on the feelings, thoughts, and behaviour.
- Finding the Outside World
Interpersonal communication able to make us understand more about ourselves and others who communicate with us. Much of the information that we know comes from interpersonal communication, although a lot of the amount of information that comes to us from the mass media that is often discussed and eventually studied or explored through interpersonal interaction.
- Establish and Maintain Relationships Full
One of the greatest desire is to form and maintain relationships with others. We use a lot of time in interpersonal communication immortalized to form and maintain social relationships with others.
- Changing Attitudes and Behaviour
A lot of times we use to change the attitudes and behaviour of others with interpersonal encounter. We may want them to choose a certain way, such as trying a new diet, buy a certain item, see movies, write books, entering certain areas and believe that something is true or false. We use a lot of time involved in interpersonal position.
- To Play and Pleasure
Playing covers all the activities that have the primary purpose is to seek pleasure. Talking with friends about our activities during the weekends, discuss sports, tell stories and funny stories in general it is a conversation to pass the time. By doing that kind of interpersonal communication can provide an important balance in mind the need to relax from all the seriousness in our environment.
- To Help
Psychiatric experts, clinical psychologist and therapy use interpersonal communication in their professional activities to direct clients. We all also serves to help others in our interpersonal interactions daily. We consulted with a friend who dropped out of love, in consultation with the students about the courses that should be taken and so forth.
Therefore, from the above theories, it can be concluded that when one is using interpersonal communication, each individual can have different goals, according to their respective needs.
- The nature of Mastery
Speaking of vocabulary mastery, the first thing that should be explained is the definitions of mastery since the primary goal of vocabulary, which is mastery. According to Allen (2000:856), Mastery is skill or knowledge that makes one master of s subject. The Heinemann Dictionary (1989:631) also defines that mastery is the skill or knowledge of master.
From the definitions stated previously, mastery is someone’s skill or knowledge of a subject. Subject in this case is vocabulary in a foreign language, which is learnt by student. In addition, Harmer (2002:13) points out that without grammar very little can be conveyed, without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Meaning that the existence of vocabulary cannot be separated by the existence of a language. In other words, no Language exists without vocabulary.
- The nature of Vocabulary
Vocabulary in Oxford: Advanced Learner s Dictionary (1995 1331) the definition of vocabulary is: (1) The total number of words in a language. (2) all the words known to a person or used in a particular book, subject. etc. (3) a list of words with their meanings, especially one that accompanies a textbook in a foreign Language.
In The World Book Encyclopaedia (1995:414) vocabulary is the total number of words in a language, it is also the collection of words a person knows and uses in speaking or writing. Furthermore, Read (2000:11) says a basic assumption in vocabulary is knowledge of words. A word is a microcosm of human consciousness. Vocabulary therefore has an important role to help the students understand the meaning of words.
Referring to the concept of mastery, vocabulary mastery is someone’s proficiency in using words sod their meaning appropriately in language By reading a text, learners will be accustomed to looking the dictionary up, guessing the wads, and using the words in the context property. Good mastery of vocabulary helps the learners express their ideas precisely. By having many stocks of words, learners will be able to comprehend the reading materials, catch someone’s talk, give a response, speak fluently, and write some kinds of topics On the contrary, if the learners are unfamiliar with the meaning of the words by those who address them, they will be unable to participate in conversation, ask for the information or express some ideas and thoughts.
From the previous statements, it can be inferred that vocabulary is a collection of words, which is collected through language, conversation and a dictionary used by people in verbal communication
- Vocabulary Mastery
Vocabulary mastery is someone’s proficiency in using words and meaning and English language which frequently come up. Besides, vocabulary is also important in language learning which has to be mastered by students to develop the language skills; especially in reading that students should have adequate vocabulary as a result they can understand the reading materials
According to Thornbury (2002:3-9), there are some ways of presenting a word meaning namely:
- Word classes; the words play different roles in a text. They fall into one of eight different word classes such as nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverb, prepositions, conjunction, and determiner.
- Word families; how words may share the same base or root but take different endings. A word family comprises the base word plus its inflexions and its most common derivatives.(e.g. play, play + er = player, re play – replay, play + ful = playful)
- Collocations; how words “couple up” to form compounds, and how they “hunt in packs” in the shape of multi-word units. It is seen as part of a continuum of strength of association: a continuum that moves from compound words (second hand; record player), through multi-word units or lexical chunks (bits and pieces), including idioms (out of the blue) and phrasal verbs (do up), to collocations of more or less fixedness (set the record straight, set a new world record).
- Synonyms; Words that share a similar meaning. Thus: old, ancient, antique, aged, elderly are all synonyms in that they share the common meaning of not young/new. Synonyms are similar, but seldom the same
- Antonyms; words with opposite meanings like old and new.
The implication of the aspects just mentioned in presenting a word meaning, learning the vocabulary of a second language presents the following implications for teaching as slated by Thombury (2002:30):
- Learners need tasks and strategies to help them organize their mental lexicon by building networks of association — the more the better.
- Teachers need to accept that the learning of new words involves a period of “initial fuzziness”.
- Learners need to wean themselves off a reliance on direct translation from their mother tongue.
- Words need to be presented in their typical contexts, so that learners can get a feel for their meaning, their register, their collocations, and their syntactic environments.
- Teaching should direct attention to the sound of new words, particularly the way they are stressed.
- Learners should aim to build a threshold vocabulary as quickly as possible.
- Learners need to be actively involved in the learning of words.
- Learners need multiple exposures to words and they need to retrieve words from memory repeatedly.
- Learners need to make multiple decisions about words
- Memory of new words can be reinforced if they are used to express personally relevant meanings.
- Not all the vocabulary that the learners need can be taught. Learners will need plentiful exposure to talk and text as well as training for self-directed learning
Hence, from the above theories, it can be seen that so many components in mastering vocabulary because it consists of words, which have special features, and when someone only knowing the content words, without knowing the function words, and other components of words, he or she will never understand English sentence in a paragraph, or in a passage. Having lack of vocabulary will make students difficult in expressing their ideas; they will find many difficulties in using language skills. In enriching student’s vocabulary therefore the first thing has to do before starting lesson, students are introduced with the new vocabulary in the context of a passage.
As a result, vocabulary mastery is the student’s ability in finding out the words meaning in a sentence or paragraph, in the content, functional words, idioms, and also phrasal verbs. The vocabulary mastery can be enriched by giving a test to the students about words implementation, labelling a word to u picture, describing someone or something, finding the synonyms or antonyms from the text or the passage.
The research was carried out at the fourth semester students of two Universities in East Jakarta. In this case, the method that used by the researcher is explanatory survey with quantitative approach through correlation method. This method explains the effect between variables that will be researched and explained. Namely, it will test the effect that shown correlation coefficient between variables of interpersonal communication skill (X1), and vocabulary mastery (X2) towards the student’s speaking skill (Y). The population of this research is the fourth semester students, they are 425 students. The choosing of the sample is done by random sampling and they are 40 students.
Data sources of vocabulary mastery are the fourth semester students of two universities. The data Collection Techniques are (1) the data about the student’s speaking skill, the researcher uses the observation to get the data of the student’s speaking skill; (2) The data about interpersonal communication skill, the researcher uses the questionnaire to get the data of interpersonal communication skill; (3) The data about vocabulary mastery, the researcher uses the multiple choice test to get the data of vocabulary mastery.
C. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This research is to determine the effect of the interpersonal communication skill (X1) and vocabulary mastery (X2) on the Student’s speaking skill (Y).
- The effect of the interpersonal communication and vocabulary mastery together towards student’s speaking skill.
From the description of the data after the correlation analysis obtained correlation coefficient of 0.763 and a coefficient of determination as much as 58.3%, after testing with SPSS program proved that the correlation coefficient is significant. This means that there are significant independent variable X1 (the interpersonal communication skill) and X2 (vocabulary mastery) together on the dependent variable Y (student’s speaking skill).
While the regression equation regression line is Y = 27.038 + 0.376X1 + 0.257X2. Constant value = 27.038, shows that with the student’s interpersonal communication skill and the low vocabulary mastery is difficult for students to be able to achieve Student’s speaking skill are good. While the value of the regression coefficient of 0.376 and 0.257 indicate that there are positive effects of independent variables X1 (the interpersonal communication skill) and X2 (vocabulary mastery ) together on the dependent variable Y (Student’s speaking skill), and every increase of one unit the interpersonal communication skill and at the same time an increase in vocabulary mastery, it will be followed by an increase Student’s speaking skill by 0.633 units = (0.376 + 0.257).
Testing the significance of regression coefficients are also performed with the SPSS program shows that the regression coefficient is significant, which is indicated by the Sig = 0.000 and F value = 25.835, while the F table = = 3.252, so that the Sig = 0.000 < 0.05 and F count > F table or regression is significant, which means it is true that there is a positive effect of the independent variables X1 (the interpersonal communication skill) and X2 (vocabulary mastery) together on the dependent variable Y (Student’s speaking skill).
According to the synthesis of existing theory in Chapter II, Student’s speaking skill is ability of student’s communication which involve various skills to decide on when to speak; what form to use; which words are suitable in form and meaning; used of sequences of sounds, voice, tone and form; convincing one feels the need to speak properly in the right situation; and correct positioning of tongue and lips to produce linguistic sounds.
The Interpersonal communication skill is a process of exchange of meaning among those who communicate with each other. People who communicate with each other that is the source and the receiver. Source encoding to create and formulate using channel. Receiver do the decoding to understand the message, and then put forward a response or feedback. Unavoidable that the communication process is always associated with a particular context, for example, the context of time. Barriers can occur at the source, encoding, message, channel, decoding, as well as on the recipient.
While Vocabulary mastery is the student’s ability in finding out the words meaning in a sentence or paragraph, in the content, functional words, idioms, and also phrasal verbs. The vocabulary mastery con be enriched by giving a test to the students about words implementation, labelling a word to u picture, describing someone or something, finding the synonyms or antonyms from the text or the passage.
Of quantitative information and the theory, the researchers concluded that there is a significant effect on the interpersonal communication and vocabulary mastery together towards student’s speaking skill.
- The effect of the student’s interpersonal communication skill towards student’s speaking skill
Obtained from testing the hypothesis that the Sig = 0.000 and t = 4.436, while the table = 2.024. Because the Sig value < 0.05 and t > t table then H0 is rejected which means that there is a significant effect of the independent variables X1 (the interpersonal communication skill) on the dependent variable Y (Student’s speaking skill).
According to the synthesis of existing theory in Chapter II, The interpersonal communication skill is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of study. Related skills are learned and can be improved. During interpersonal communication there is message sending and message receiving. This can be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal communication is when the message senders and the message receivers understand the message.
The role of interpersonal communication has been studied mainly as a mediator for mass media effects. Since introduced their ‘filter hypothesis’, maintaining that personal communication mediates the influence of mass communication on individual voters, many studies have repeated this logic when combining personal and mass communication in effect studies on election campaigns.
Of quantitative information and the theory, the researchers concluded that there is a significant effect of the interpersonal communication towards student’s speaking skill.
- The effect of vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill
Obtained from testing the hypothesis that the Sig = 0.002 and t = 3.250, while the table = 2.024. Because the Sig > 0.05 and t < ttable then H0 is rejected which means that there is a significant effect of the independent variables X1 (Vocabulary mastery) on the dependent variable Y (Student’s speaking skill).
According to the synthesis of existing theory in Chapter II, vocabulary is a collection of words, which is collected through language, conversation and a dictionary used by people in verbal communication Vocabulary mastery is someone’s proficiency in using words and meaning and English language which frequently come up. Besides, vocabulary is also important in language learning which has to be mastered by students to develop the language skills; especially in reading that students should have adequate vocabulary as a result they can understand the reading materials.
Of quantitative information and the theory, the researchers concluded that there is a significant effect of the vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill.
The purpose of the research is to know the effect of the interpersonal communication skill and vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill individually and simultaneity of the fourth semester students of STIBA IEC and Borobudur University Jakarta. The results of the conclusion are as follows:
- There are any significant effects of the interpersonal communication skill and vocabulary mastery jointly towards student’s speaking skill of the fourth semester students at private university in East Jakarta, It is proved by F account = 25.835 > F table (0,05,2,37) = 3,252, and sig = 0.000 < 0.05.
- There is significant effect of the student’s interpersonal communication skill towards student’s speaking skill of the fourth semester students at private university in East Jakarta. It is proved by t account = 4.436 > t table = 2.024, and sig = 0.000 < 0.05.
- There is significant effect of the vocabulary mastery towards student’s speaking skill of the fourth semester students at private university in East Jakarta. It is proved by taccount = 3.250 > ttable = 2.024, and sig = 0.002 < 0.05.
Boardman, A. E. & Miller, S. & Schinnar, A. P., 1979. “Efficient employment of cohorts of labor in the U.S. economy: An illustration of a method,” Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 13(6)
Brown, G. & Yule, G. 1997. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Brown, H Douglas.2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, NY: Addison Wesley Ltd.
Brown, H. D. 1994. Teaching by Principles, an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Prentice Hall.
Bygate, M. 1987. Speaking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cambridge International Dictionary of English. 1995. Cambridge University Press
Cangara, Hafied. 1998. Pengantar Ilmu Komunikasi. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.
Dedy Mulyana, 2000. Ilmu Komunikasi, Pengantar. Bandung : Remaja Rosadakarya
Effendy, Onong Uchjan.1992. Komunikasi Teori dan Praktek, Bandung :Remaja Pengantar Ilmu Komunikasi, Jakarta : Grasindo.Rosdakarya.
Harmer J. 2002. How to teach vocabulary. England: Longman
Harmer, J. 1983. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Longman.
Harmer, Jeremy. 1998. How to Teach English, Longman: Addison Wesley Ltd.
Heinemann Dictionary.1989. teaching and learning vocabulary: an introduction .
Mayer, John D.; Salovey, Peter; Caruso, David R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or ecletic traits American Psychologist
Muhammad, Arny. 2005. Komunikasi Organisasi. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara
Read, John. 2000. Assessing vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Richard C Yorkey. 1990. Study skill for students of English as a second language New York: MC. Grow Hill, Inc.
Richard C Yorkey, Study skill for students of English as a second language. New York: MC. Grow Hill, Inc.
Richards Jack C, 1991. Interchange, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Richards, Jack C and Willy. A. Renandya, Methodology in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, Jack C., and Renandya, Willy A., Eds. 2002. Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology Of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Samovar, L. A. and J. Mills 1972. Oral communication: Message and response. Dubuque, IA, Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
Scott M. Cutlip, Allen H. 2000. Effective Public Relations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Thornbury, Scott .2002. How to Teach Vocabulary Longman.
Yule, George. 1996. The Study of Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Redman, Stuart. 1997. English Vocabulary in Use, Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, H Douglas. 1991. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching.
San Francisco: Prentice Hall.
Bereison, B. and G.A. Steiner. 1979, Human Behaviour, and Inventory of Scientific Findings, New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Cecco, De, J.P. 1968. The Psychology of Learning and Instruction: Educational Psychology, Engelwood, New Jersey: Prentice, Inc.