STIBA IEC Jakarta
Principally, the objective of this research is to find out the result of achievement of student’s speaking skill through the performance of translation and interpreting studies. In view of that, this research constitutes one of teacher’s best endeavors to recognize the attainment of student’s speaking skill as the prerequisite for them to get a highly qualified competency for their carrier in the future. Hence, the objective of education for which the students pursue in the university can be accordingly achieved. The achievement of students speaking skill in the society is very important due to the fact that many kinds of world-class business opportunities need a qualification of competency-based speaking skill. The steps of improving the students speaking skill through translating and interpreting study are namely understanding linguistics, socio linguistics and psycho-linguistics and vocabulary as well.
Generally, in improving students speaking skill, the first things first, student must automatically learn the language itself as a means of communication. In this matter, to learn English language, hence, students should learn a wide range of English speaking competence elements which are among the other things English grammar, English vocabulary, English translation and English interpretation. Even though, students have a limited time to learn English in class, however they still have enough time to practice English outside of the class in order to be more familiar with English. There are so many things which constitute the best effort for students to have their English speaking skill improved, for example it is necessary for the students only to speak English during the class, and the teacher himself must be able to convince his students to be brave to speak English, it does not matter if they have very bad grammar for the first time. Just say whatever the students want to say. And the teacher must convince his students that making errors is a normal thing in learning. This way will raise students’ confidence to try to speak English. Furthermore, the students should have English conversation club that consists of their own classmates or their friends having the same interest in mastering their English speaking skill. They can share and talk about anything in English during that time. In this club, they can learn together. Students of university can correct each other without feeling embarrassed. English will become students’ routine activities.
In relation to which, the other ways of how to improve the students speaking skill is by joining English-supporting program like translating and interpreting studies. Translating and interpreting skills have a significant contribution on the mastery or knowhow of students’ speaking skill.
Fundamentally, every problem can be solved, likewise the problem of how to speak English fluently that students have. By forcing the students to study about language along with the elements thereof, students can obtain such an interesting experience to get the admiration and enjoyment of speaking English during the class or elsewhere in the campus environment. Interestingly, the creativity and innovation of how to find another way to enhance the students speaking skill is considerably required.
2. The Objective
The objective of this study is to find out the result of achievement of student’s speaking skill through the performance of translation and interpreting studies.
3. Theoretical Framework
3.1 Translation Definition
There are some translation definitions which are among the other things: (1) Nida and Taber (1982:12) say that translating consist in reproducing in receptor language the closest natural equivalence of a source-language message, firstly in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style; (2) Wills (1982:112) says that translation is a procedure which leads from a written source language text to an optimally equivalent target language text and requires the syntactic, semantic, stylistic, and text pragmatic comprehension by the translator of the original text; (3) Larson (1984:3) says that translation consists of translating the meaning of the source language into the receptor language. This is done by going from the form of the first language to the form of a second language by way of semantic structure. It is meaning which is being transferred and must be held constant. Only the firm changes; (4) Malinowski (1965:11-2) quoted by Tou (1999:3) says that translating must always be the re-creation of the original into something profoundly different. On the other hand. It is never substitution of word for word but in variably the translation of the whole context; (5) Steiner (1994:103) says that translation can be seen as (co) generation of text under specific constraint that is relative stability of some situational factors and, therefore, register, and classically, change of language and (context of) culture; (6) Rachmat Effendi (1922:6) says that translation is the process of transforming message from one language (source language) into another (target language) by reconstructing & editing sentences of the target language; (7) Baker (1992:5-6) says that the equivalence is adopted in this book for the sake of convenience-because most of translators are used to it rather than because it has any theoretical status. It is used here with the provision that although equivalence can always be obtained to some extent, it is influenced by a variety of linguistic and cultural factors and it is therefore always relative.
From all statements stated hereinabove, it can be known that there are some different definitions, however in practice, if they are deeply analysed, they actually complement each other.
3.2 The Nature of Translating and Interpreting Philosophy
Translating-interpreting activity worldwide, continue to be more and more important practices, especially in Indonesia as it is close to globalization and digitalization era. That is why a translation and interpreting Agent is now emerging to be a key position in high level of communication and, be more momentous in intermediating various type of business activities both among parties and individuals, especially in many developing countries beginning to go international, like Indonesia.
Academically, by understanding and mastering the scope of translating and interpreting skill the students will have another source to improve their speaking skill, the extent to which, they really understand and practice it as well as possible. The following is the scope of translation and interpreting.
Translation and Interpreting
Figure 1. Scope of Translation and Interpreting
L I N G U I S T I CS
Source: Cara Mudah Menulis dan Menterjemahkan written by: Rachmat Effendi P.
Figure 2: Triangle of Communication Infrastructures
Here is the Triangle of Communication infrastructure, comprising Linguistics or Standard English language based on the conventional agreement of linguist, Socio-Linguistics or non-standard English Language based on cultural Agreement or the comprehension of a certain community, and Psycho-Linguistics or Practice of Communication or Language understanding based on individual comprehension or ones logic rather than knowledge. And you will be unable to build communication properly or effectively without mastering or at least understanding all of these aspects.
Translating and Interpreting skill
Figure 3. The flow of speaking skill derived from translating and interpreting competence.
Unquestionably, Indonesia is a big country with good reputation in international business sphere. In relation to which, most of leading Indonesian running business internationally nowadays tries to find intermediary parties including translator and/or interpreters in order to succeed their business. That is why understanding and mastering translation theory will meaningfully support the competence of speaking.
Why study Translation and interpreting because translation and interpreting studies can also support speaking competence of students while the students will also engage to:
· love and pleasure of working with languages;
· To explore and understand the details, nuances, and secrets of language and language transfer;
· To understand the workings and importance of translation, and the translator, in all international and intercultural exchanges;
· To learn about and develop skills in terminology and technologies of translation;
· To participate and work in increasing international inter-connectedness;
· To acquire professional skills in language transfer and get a job in the field;
· To work as a translator, or interpreter, or terminologist, or reviser, or bilingual, and even trilingual editor/writer – in many companies or institution either nationally or internationally
The process of translating and interpreting competence is simply described in the following sequence. Starting from the Source Language (SL) student should analyze what kinds of source language which should translate or interpret into target language, after which it transfers and restructures into Target Language (TL). For example if the student would like to translate or interpret “di tengah cerahnya mentari” he cannot translate “in the middle of the sun”, as it is impossible, instead of “On the sunny day”. Another example if the student would like to translate or interpret from Indonesian “Marilah kita sambut hari cerah ini dengan senyum ceria dan dada terbuka” student cannot translate into “Lets welcome this clear day with good smile and open chest” Instead of lets enjoy this sunny day with bright smile and spirit of life”. Furthermore, if the student would like to translate or interpret “Pemerintah belum melaksanakan program pengentasan kemiskinan” student cannot translate or interpret “ the Government does not perform poverty alleviation program” Instead of “the Government is not performing the poverty alleviation program”. Student should translate in the form of present progressive not in present tense, because if we translate or interpret in present tense it means there is not a good faith from the Government to perform poverty alleviation program. So that why student should translate or interpret in present progressive form, as it is only for temporary being.
Source Language (SL)
Target Language (TL)
Source: Eugene Nida
3.3 The scope Interpreting
Interpreters convert spoken or sign language statements from one language to another. Interpreting involves listening to, understanding and memorizing content in the original ‘source’ language, then reproducing statements, questions and speeches in a different ‘target’ language. This is often done in only one direction, normally into the interpreter’s native language, but may be on a two-way basis.
Interpreters work in the following settings:
· business functions such as meetings, conferences, exhibitions and product launches;
· criminal justice proceedings, known as public service interpreting (PSI), including police and probation service interviews, court
· hearings, solicitor interviews, arbitration hearings and immigration tribunals;
· community-based events and assignments within the education, health and social services sectors.
3.4 Types of interpreter
Interpreting can be carried out in person, by telephone or via video conferencing and internet-based technologies.
There are several types of interpreting.
· Simultaneous interpretation (SI): working in a team at a conference or large meeting, the interpreter sits in a soundproof booth (there are separate booths for each conference language) and immediately converts what is being said, so listeners hear the interpretation through an earpiece while the speaker is still speaking. A variation of this is whispering or chuchotage, where the interpreter sits near one person or a small group and whispers the translation as the speaker carries on. Sign language interpreting is also usually simultaneous. Interpreters typically take turns of about 30 minutes as it demands such high levels of concentration.
· Consecutive interpretation (CI): more common in smaller meetings and discussions, the speaker will pause after each sentence or point and wait while the interpreter translates what is being said into the appropriate language.
· Liaison interpretation: also known as ad hoc and relay, this is a type of two-way interpreting, where the interpreter translates every few sentences while the speaker pauses. This is common in telephone interpreting as well as in legal and health situations. The interpreter supports people who are not fluent in the language to ensure their understanding.
· Sign language interpretation: interpreters convert spoken statements into sign language and vice versa. Interpreting from one sign language to another is another option.
The following work activities are likely in any interpreting setting:
· assimilating speakers’ words quickly, including jargon and acronyms;
· building up specialist vocabulary banks;
· writing notes to aid memory;
· using microphones and headsets;
· preparing paperwork – considering agendas before meetings, or lectures and speeches when received in advance;
· using the internet to conduct research;
· organizing workload and liaising with internal departments, agencies and employers;
· working to a professional code of ethics covering confidentiality and impartiality.
3.6 The Nature of Speaking
1) The nature of Skill
Department of Health (2001:45) said skill is an ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills). Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1997:179), Skill is the ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well.
Furthermore skill can be theoretically said as the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. In other words the abilities that one possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific skills. For example, in the domain of work, some general skills would include time management, teamwork and leadership, self-motivation and others, whereas domain-specific skills would be useful only for a certain job. Skill usually requires certain environmental stimuli and situations to assess the level of skill being shown and used.
Based on the above theories it can be concluded that Skill is the ability, coming from one’s knowledge, practice, aptitude, etc., to do something well.
2) The nature of Speaking
The whole of human history is built upon communication. From the first story told in prehistoric times through the mass media of today, verbal communication has built the foundation of who we are, where we came from, and what we hope to become. Throughout time, many orators, philosophers, and educators have tried to capture the essence of human communication. Although a true understanding of the complexity of communication takes years of examination, it has tried to offer a brief highlight of some of the major contributors.
Speaking is a very important part in studying English. People need to speak in order to communicate one each other and make a good communication. When someone was born, he learns how to speak, and speaking can make him communicate or contact with other person. According to Yorkey (1990;4), speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously. 1) The teacher role is becoming important for students later. There are many keys to support speaking skill by listening cassette, watching TV, Watching film, practicing with foreigners, practicing with partners. In judging whether students are speaking in correct statements. There are two criteria which the teacher must take : -The students have to understand the meaning of words that they use and associate them into the objects of their represent. –The students have to pronounce the words properly in order to arise some perception and they understand each other. (Richard C Yorkey, 1990:4).
Speaking is a form of communication (Jone, 1989: 14). It means that speaking a kind of communication which is conveyed orally. It is certainly that the process of it involves two sides, the speaker and the listener who may function interchangeably. When the speaker produces utterances sent to the listener, he/she may function as a speaker. Otherwise, when the listener gets turn to give responses, he/she may function as a speaker. In short, may be said that speaking has the similar meaning to oral communication.
Brown says that conversations are collaborative activities as participants (speaker and listener) engage in a process of negotiation of meaning, (Brown, 2001:268). Meanwhile, Brown and Yule say that in the production of speech each speaker needs to speak individually and ideally. He needs someone to listen to this speaking and to respond to him, (Brown and Yule, 1997; 25)
In relation to building social relationship, everyone owns his goal for that reason. One may speak when he intends to discuss something. Harmer (2006: 46-7) states that there are. This implies that some reasons why people are involved in conversation. First they want to say something. This implies that when there is something to tell, they need to speak; otherwise, he will not speak. Second, they have communicative purpose. Third, they intend to select words. It means speakers in general have certain capacity to produce new and appropriate sentences.
Richards and Renandya (2002: 201) support Hammer’s views, which emphasize that one will make a social relationship through discussion forum. In this case, he will express his own ideas and persuade others or clarify information. Boardman (1979; 1) states that the language used by a speaker is to show how to ask information, to suggest, to prohibit, to express ideas, etc. In the context of English learning, students are encourage to be able to express themselves in target language, to overcome basic skills of interaction such as mutual greetings, expressions of thanks and apology, and to express his needs such as asking for information (Brown and Yule, 1988: 27).
Samovar and Mills (1972:62) further elaborate explanation provided by Finochiaro and Bonomo; that is, speaking as a two-way communication process between speaker and listener. They suggest that spoken communication does not only require speaking skills but also mutual understanding between speaker and listener. They define spoken communication as follows: 1) ‘communication involves more than one people, 2) communication aims at obtaining responses, 3) ideas and feeling are communication materials that need to be specially planned to achieve the intended objectives, 4) communication is a symbolical process, 5) communication is a real process in life that depends end how we adapt to our surrounding properly, 6) response of the receiver or listener is the test to effectiveness of communication activities. Lack of listener’s response means no communication exist.
Papalia (1983:15) states that speaking skills is not solely dependent on linguistics, competence but also on understanding of culture, strategic function and use of language in interactions in social contexts since success in acquiring communicative competence is dependent on how the components are integrated. For this, sauvignon (1983:21) suggest that communicative competence in the teaching of English needs to be develop through more provision of time for listening activities, providing students with the greatest possible opportunities to obtain responses, considering student’s grammatical mistakes as something natural in the teaching-learning process and performing activities within contexts that include their feelings and involvement as a whole.
M. Bygate in Spoisky (193:63) suggest that speaking skills have two integrated elements; that is, relative accuracy and relative fluency. Accuracy is one dimension related to clarity, appropriateness and correctness of certain message that are related to interlocutors and norms. Success of a message is influenced by selection, formulation and comprehensibility. This dimension covers use of grammar, pronunciation of vocabulary, selection of expression, discourse markers and register.
According to Jone speaking is a form of communication. It means that speaking is a kind of communication which conveyed orally. It is certainly that the process of it involves two sides, that speaker produces literacies sent to the listener, he/she may function as a speaker. Otherwise, when the listener, gets turn to give responses, he/she my function as a speaker in short , it may be said that speaking has the similar meaning to oral communication.
Jone adds that during communication what one says should be conveyed in and effective way. How one says has the same importance as what one says . The concept produced by a speaker should be delivered in a proper, polite and acceptable way in order that the listener feels comfortable to what the speaker says. An important concept will be less important it is delivered in impolite that may threaten Interlocutor’s face or the new may be different if a less important than concept is sent politely to the listener.
This research use the library research to get the data about the student’s speaking skill through the performance of translation and interpreting studies.
B. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
If students want to be able to speak fluently in English, they need to be able pronounce us correctly, use appropriate stress and intonation patterns and speak in connected speech. Speakers of English – especially where it is a second language – will have to be able to speak in a range different genres and situations, and they will be have to be able to use a range of conversational and conversational-strategies. They will need to be able to survive in typical functional exchanges too.
Students are often reluctant to speak because they are shy and are not predisposed to expressing themselves in front of other people, especially when they are being asked to give personal information or opinions. Frequently, too, there is a worry about speaking badly and therefore losing face in front of their classmates. In such situation there are number things we can do to help. The teacher role is becoming important for student later. There are many keys to support speaking skill by listening cassette, watching TV, watching Film, practicing with foreigners, practicing with partner.
Speaking is a one of language skill in learning language. Speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously. People need to speak in order to communicate with the other people and make a good communication well. We have to learn how to speak, and speaking can make us communicate or contact with other person.
From the explanation, it is likely to have the same ideas on speaking reasons, namely the intention to deliver information to other people and to entertain and make other people feel happy as well as to express ideas. In English speaking situation, a student may speak with his classmate to convey some information and his ideas. A student also speaks when a lecture asks him some questions.
Considering some ideas above on the English speaking ability and necessity of using English, it is concluded that English speaking ability is one’s capacity of producing ideas orally to others through learning process expressed in English acceptable and appropriate ways to maintain social relationship.
Based on the above theories, it can be concluded that Speaking skill is a skill and like other skill, it must be practiced continuously in order to communicate with the other people and make a good communication well.
Why a speaker creates communication with a listener, it is certainly said to have a basic assumption. Celce – Murcia and Olshtsin, who occupy oral interaction as speaking say that and any oral interaction the speaker want to communicate ideas, feelings, attitudes, and information to the hearer or wants to employ speech that relates to the situation. The main objective of the speaker is to go understood. And for the messages to be properly interpreted by the hearers. The two also use speech production referring to speaking explain that speech production is produced on-line and that is prototypically reciprocal (feedback ) in nature. The reciprocity develops during the on-going negotiation of meaning between the speaker and listener.
A similar view is presented by brown, who mentions speaking as conversation . He says that conversations are collaborative as participants (Speaker and Listener) engage in a process of negotiation of meaning . Meanwhile, Brown and Yule using the production of speech to refer to the term of speaking say that in the production of speech each speaker needs to speak individually and ideally . He needs someone to listen to his speaking and to respond to him.
Learning from the descriptions above, there are substance underlining them, i e : the term of speaking end definition of speaking . The term of speaking is used interchanged by with the term of “oral communication”, “oral interaction”, “conversation”, or “ Speech production”. Based on the evidence the researcher occupies the term of “ Oral communication”, “Oral interaction”, “conversation”, or “speech production as speaking. Men while, speaking may be defined as a collaborative activity between a speaker and listener is in which the two parties want to convey and negotiate thoughts, feelings or messages in a special reciprocal situation underlined by a mutual understanding.
Based on the explanation, it can be concluded that speaking skill is the ability of student’s communication which involve various skills to decide on when to speak; what form to use; which words are suitable in form and meaning; used of sequences of sounds, voice, tone and form; convincing one feels the need to speak properly in the right situation; and correct positioning of tongue and lips to produce linguistic sounds
From the matters mentioned hereinabove, the writer can conclude that students can improve their speaking skill from many kinds of ways, one of which is from understanding and mastering translating and interpreting studies. It is because in translating and interpreting studies students can learn intra-language, inter-language, inter-semiotic, intercultural and visual translation as well as to have experience in practicing simultaneous, consecutive, liaison and sign language interpretation. In view of that, student can get enough support and influence from such knowledge to enhance and develop their speaking skill.
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